Wright, Joseph, 1898-1905. The English dialect dictionary. Oxford University Press. London. 6 vol.

The first part includes all plants, native, cultivated or introduced in the British Isles as well as superior fungi and alga, mosses, liverworts and lichens.

A second part lists the names of plant life and plant parts.

In the appendices can be found the cognates of a certain number of plant names, assembled under a common root.

Blamey, Marjorie & Christopher Grey-Wilson, 1989. The illustrated flora of Britain and northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Rose, Francis, 1989. Colour identification guide to the grasses, sedges, rushes and ferns of the British Isles and north-western Europe. Penguin Group, London.

Names not found in Wright’s dictionary are from the preceding two books, or from  Grieve.

Very often the names have been applied to similar species which are not differentiated by non-botanists. Since there are some 30 species of roses and over 50 species of dandelions, the names for “dandelion” are assembled under the Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale, and those for “wild rose” are assembled under the the Dog Rose Rosa canina.

Due to the diffulty of identification and imprecise descriptions by witnesses, a certain number of names have been erroneously applied. Such errors are most evident when the species named does not have the character implied by the name. When applied to a species other than the original, the name loses its semantic value. *ex….

Uncertain attributions are followed by a question mark (?).

Many names have been attributed to the Greater Stitchwort Stellaria holostea, an inconspicuous plant without any medicinal use, while the Common Chickweed  Stellaria media a very common and widespread garden pest seems to have been forgotten. In the same way, the Heath Rush Juncus squarrosus is often cited, but the Sharp-flowered Rush Juncus articulatus, the commonest species is hardly mentioned.

Grieve, M. 1976 (Edited and introduced by C.F. Leyel). A modern herbal. Penguin Books (first published 1936).

Blamey, Marjorie & Christopher Grey-Wilson, 1989. The illustrated flora of Britain and northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Klein, Ernest, 1971. A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York.

Mabberley, D.J., C.E. Jarvis, and B.E. Juniper, 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea 9 (2): 421-430. (Nomenclature of the orchard apple).

Rose, Francis, 1989. Colour identification guide to the grasses, rushes and ferns of the British Isles and north-western Europe. Penguin, London.

Pearsall, Judy & Bill Trumble, 2001. The Oxford English reference dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.

Stubbs, F.B., 1986. Provisional keys to British plant galls. British Plant Gall Society.

Wright, Joseph, 1898-1905. The English dialect dictionary. London. 6 vol. Reprinted 1970.

App. appendix

dial. dialectal

I. Island

n.Irel. northern Ireland

N.Irel. (political)

prob. probably

sp. species unidentified

spp. several species of the genus

subsp. subspecies

transl. translation

Following scientific research, botanical nomenclature has changed considerably in the last century. The following is a list of 272 names used at the time of Wright, now considered as synonyms:

Allium porrum = Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum

Anthyllis vulgaris = Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulgaris

Brassica campestris (turnip) = Brassica rapa subsp. campestris

Brassica campestris (rutabaga) = Brassica napus subsp. rapifera var. napobrassica

Brassica fimbriata = Brassica oleracea var. acephala

Calamagrostis variegata = Phalaris arundinacea var. variegata

Phaseolus multiflorum var. coccinea = Phaseolus coccineus

Phlox acutifolium = Phlox paniculata var. acutifolium

Prunus insititia = Prunus domestica var. insititia

Viola sylvestris, V. sylvatica = Viola reichenbachiana

In the left column: scientific names in bold characters. In the right column the English names.

Arrows refer to appendices.

Abies alba

Silver Fir

fir Scot., England, fur Cumb., e.York., vir n.Cy. (Dan. fyr, Sw. fure, Germ föhre), candle-fir Elgin, Aberdeen (the wood used for lighting purposes)

The cones: apple Linc., Wor., deal-apple e.Anglia, fir-apple nw. Cumb., Linc., Sussex, Hmp (the cone), chat York., n.Linc. (id.) cave Hamp., fir-apple Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., I.Wight., Nhp., Leic., Berk., e.Suff., Sussex, Hamp., fir-bull Shrop. (the cones of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba)  app. 2.1

Acer campestre

Field Maple

maplin-tree Glouc., dog-oak York., Not., cat-oak w.York., oak Devon, locks-and-keys n.Linc., Devon (the seed vessels), shackles Devon (the seeds) see Rhinanthus; peacock’s tail Hert., whitty-bushes Shrop. (?)

Acer pseudoplatanus


maple s.Cumb., England, may, may-tree Corn., share w.Cy., segumber Devon, seggy e.York., horse-shoe Wilt., whistle-wood Selk., n.Cy., Nhb. (see Salix)

The winged seeds: cats-and-keys Devon, locks-and-keys n.Linc., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, knives-and-forks Kent, cock-and-hens n. Cy. (“leaf beds” = the winged seeds)

Achillea millefolium


yarrel Suff., yallow Lanc., yock-yall, york-yall Linc., yarra-grass Essex, yarroway e.Angl., yarwe OE, gearwe AS, prob. from yar (York., Lanc.) acid, sour; hurr (Linc., Kent., Sussex) tart, astringent, rough-tasting; stanch-grass Aberd. (“stink grass”)

thousand-leaf Ches., Lanc., thousand-leaf grass Staff., thousand-leaved clover Berw., Rxb., Nhb., milfoil (-) (French mille-feuilles), hundred-leaved grass Nhb.

green-arrow Suff., stop-blood s.Pemb., nose-bleed Hamp., devil’s nettle Ches., breakstone-parsley Staff., hemming-and-sewing Hamp., old-man’s mustard Linc. (for moustache), traveller’s ease Wilt., betsey Kent, wild pepper Nhb., cammock Devon (see Ononis natrix), tansy Ches. (= prob. Tanacetum vulgare)

Achillea ptarmica


love-entangled, seven-years-love Devon, seven-year’s love Glouc., w.Som., Devon, bachelor’s button Nhp., moolery-tea Caith., goose-tongue w.York., Nhp., War., Shrop., white-weed Antrim, fair-maid-of-France Midl. (a cultivated variety), bastard pellatory

Achillea serrata

sweet-mace Not., mace (-) (yarrow has a strong odour)

Alps Yarrow

Acinos arvensis

mother-of-thyme Som.,


Aconitum napellus


monk’s cowl Shrop., monk-wood Ches., masterwort (-), monkey(‘s) hood Devon, pope’s ode Nhp. (hood), grandmother’s bonnet Som., granny’s nightcap Suff., grandmother’s nightcap n.York., Ches., Nrf., Kent, old-granny’s nightcap Oxf., auld-wife-hud, old-wife’s huid Cumb. (hood), old-woman’s nightcap n.York., Oxf., s.Buck., old-woman n.Linc., friar’s-caps Devon, soldier(‘s) cap Nhp., Turk’s cap Nhp., Som., cuckoo’s cap Ches., Shrop., cuckold’s cap Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex app. 2.3; curly-murly-nightcap Gall.

captain-over-the-garden n.York., dove-flower Berk., Venus’-doves Devon, Venus’-chariot-drawn-by-doves Berk., Essex, Noahs-ark Glamorgan, Jacob’s chariot Essex, horses-and-cariages Hamp., bulls-and wheys n.Westm., adam-and-eve Norf “on lifting the hood of the flower, the upper petals appear as two little figures”, face-in-hood Nrf., boots-and-shoes Corn., barfut w.Wor., bear’s foot Not., Nhb., Hamp. (attributed to Alchemilla vulgaris and Helleborus), luckie’s mutch Lanark, cat-tail Shrop., wolf’s bane (-)

Acorus calamus

sweet rush War., sweet-seg s.Cy., sweet-flag Ches.

Sweet Flag

Adiantum capillus-veneris

Maiden-hair Fern

fairy-fern w.Irel., dudder-grass Nrf., lady-anthrer-grerninum Hamp., black-spem Hamp. (for “sperm”; so named from its blackish spores)

Adonis aestivalis

rose-ruby (-)

Summer Pheasant’s-eye

Adonis annua

jack-in-the-green Wilt., love-lies-bleeding Glouc.


Adoxa moschatellina

musk-weed w.York., town-hall clock Cumb., good-friday flower Dorset


Aegopodium podagraria

Ground Elder

ash-weed Wilt., w.Som. “from its casual resemblance to the leaf of the ash”, ground ash Ches., Linc., War., sweet ash Som., wild ash Cumb., white-ash Som., ground-elder Hamp., War.,Wor., sw.Linc., I.Wight, wild elder Buck., wild alder Linc., wild esh nw.Cumb., Dutch-elder Wilt., dog-eller Ches., dwarf-elder Hamp. (= prob. Sambucus ebulus), bishop-weed Scotland, bishop’s weed n.Irel., Dorset, jump-about War., Oxf., jack-jump-about Nhp., War., Hert., garden plague Antrim, gout-weed (-)

Aesculus hippocastanum

Horse Chestnut

conker Ches., s.Not., s.Linc., Oxf., Wilt., Som. “So called by the boys, who bore holes through them and hang them on pieces of string, and then challenge one another to try which can break the other’s conquer by striking it with his own” (in Wright) app. 2.4; hoblionker Wor., Hrf. Radnor (the fruit), oblionker-tree Wor., Glouc. (hoblionker is a game played with horse-chestnut threaded on a string; apparently from hobble “shake, dandle, toss”, and conker the horse-chestnut), towtree Hrf., bongy, bongay Suff., cob Surrey, cobbler Staff., Wor., also a round pebble, a small round lump (of coal etc.), pig-nut Som., lamb Devon (the flower)

Aethusa cynapium

fool’s parsley Bnff., Ches., Rutland, w.Cy.

Fool’s Parsley

Agrimonia eupatoria

haemony Glouc. (from the scient. name), rat-tail Dur., harvest-lice Hamp.


Agrostemma githago

Corn Cockle

popple Irel., Scot., Nhb., Cumb., York., Linc., e.Anglia, poppel N.Irel., papple Scot., poppy Ches. (the seed; popple = also pebble, cobble), sea-pink N.Irel.,

Agrostemma githago


cokeweed Scot., cockweed (-), cock’s caim Lanark (comb), corn-cockle n.York., Glouc., Essex, Dorset, Suff. app. 2.3; corn-pink Nhp., corn-flower Ches., campion “perh. from obs. campion, transl. of Greek lukhnis stephanōmatikē a plant used for (champion’s) garlands” Oxf. Dict., calourie Scot.: Renfrew

Agrostis capillaris

Common Bent-grass

bent n.York., bent-grass Nhb., Cumb., Westm., black-squitch War., fine-bent n.Cy., fine-john Ches., monkey’s grass Sussex, dun-john Ches. (Agrostis sp.), bread-and-cheese Sussex (?)

Agrostis curtisii

rabbit’s grass, deer’s foot grass I.Wight,

Bristle Bent-grass

Agrostis gigantea

marsh-bent Ayr., Sussex, marsh-grass Banff.

Black Bent-grass

Agrostis stolonifera

Creeping Bent-grass

water-twitch Cumb., running-twitch Midl., fiorin-grass Irel., black-couch, couchy-black Wilt., black-grass Essex, couchy-bent Irel. (see Elitrygia repens), quitch Glamorgan (see Elitrygia repens), orcheston-grass Wilt. (also Poa trivialis), red-robin Wilt., Dorset, Devon (?)

Aira caryophyllea

silver-hair Banff,

Silver Hair-grass

Ajuga reptans


wood-betony Irel., herb-flower Dorset, blind-man’s hand Hamp., babies’ shoes Wilt., dead-men’s bellows Nhb.

Alcea rosea

hollyhock (-) (for hock, see Malva sylvestris)


Alisma plantago-aquatica

devil’s spoon Scot. (also attributed improperly to Potamogeton natans)

Common Water-plantain

Alium sativum

country-man’s treacle Corn.


Alliaria petiolata

Garlic Mustard

hedge-garlick Cumb., jack-in-the-edge I.Wight, Dorset, n.Linc., Hert., Leic. (hedge), jack-of-the-hedge Ches., jack-by-the-edge n.York. w.Ches., Merioneth, Sussex, Devon, jack-by-the-edge-side Dorset, jack-run-along-the-edge Wilt., jack-in-the-bush Glouc., beggar-man’s oatmeal Leic., penny-hedge, penny-in-the-hedge War., Nrf., poor man’s mustard Linc., lamb’s pummy Som.

Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum

leek Scot., Nhb., Nhp., Som., London, scallion Rxb., York., Corn. (see Allium ascalonicum)


Allium ascalonicum


seibow, sibow, syboe, sybow, sebow, seybie, seybo, seybow, sibba Scot., sybo Scot., Nhb., sybee Nhb. (Ofr. chibole, from Spanish cebolla, Ital. cipolla “onion”  app. 2.7.1), see also onion

scallion Scot., England, Irel., skallion Lanc., scullion Corn., skellion Cumb. (O.French eschalogne), shallot (French échalotte) (bulb formed with scales)

Allium cepa var. cepa


ownion Devon, einyun s.War., inion Nhb., Leic., Nhp., Shrop., Hert., London, e.Anglia, Hamp., iniun Hamp., injen, injyen, innon London, inin Glouc., n.Wilt., Som., innin, innion Glouc., inon Nhp., War., s.Wor., Hrf., Glouc., Berk., Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, inun se.Wor., inyan w.Irel., inian Devon, inyon Ches., Corn., unjun n.Linc., ingyun e.Suff., ingun Fife, ne.Kent, w.Som., e.Corn., ingon Aberd., Kent, Hamp., ingin Frf., Rnf., Devon, inggon London, ingeon Devon, ingen Nrf., ingan Banff, Aberd., Perth, Ayr., Lanark, Edinb., Selk., hingin Devon (French oignon)

chibbole War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., chibbal War., s.Wor., Corn., chibbel I.Wight, chibble Oxf., Devon, cribbles Wilt. (prob. a typo for chibbles), chivvels Herf., Hamp., Corn., chiboal w.Som., chipple Wilt., Dorset, gibble Glamorgan, Glouc., Wilt., Dorset, Som., gibbal Glamorgan, gibbol Glouc., Som., gibbole Dorset, jibbal Glouc., gibbel Som. (young onion with the green stalk attached) (OF chibole)  app. 2.7.1;

bullneck Scot., War. “an onion that does not form a bulb but grows somewhat like a leek”, scallion Scot., England, Irel. “an onion with an undeveloped bulb, and various stages of the plant” see Wright.

Allium fistulosum

holleke (16th century),

Welsh onion

Allium sativum


porret York., Hrf., pouret(t), purrit Hrf., poor man’s treacle Ches., churles’ treacle Ches. (regarded as a treacle or antidote to the bite of venomous animals), clow Scot. (one of the lamina of a head of garlic; = clove)

Allium schoenoprasum

cives Corn., chive Nhb., sives (-), sye Scot. French cive)


Allium scorodoprasum

sand-tines w.York.

Sand Leek

Allium ursinum


garlick Irel., Ches., War., Glouc., Surrey, I.Wight, wild garlic Ches., War., Wor., Glouc., Surrey., Devon, garlick-wild Ches., War., Glouc., Surrey (OE gārleac, from gār spear, and lēac leek – Oxford Dict.), wild leek Nhb., gipsy-onion(s) s.Cy., I. Wight, ram York., rame Pemb., rams n&w.York., ramsh Perth, ramp n.York., ne.Lanc., ramps Irel., Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., Lanc., yamps Scot., n.Dmf., ramsey Nrf., Devon., ramsy Nrf., ramsies Nfr., Devon, ramson(s) Irel., Scot., England, ramsden I.Wight, rosems York., Stf., rommy, roms w.York., ram’s horns Glouc. (from ram “rancid, strong-flavoured, offensive in smell or taste”, stink-plant n.Linc., stink-pot York., devil-posy Shrop.

Allium vineale

crow-garlic Nhb., Hert., crow-onion War., se.Wor., wild onions War., Aaron’s beard n.Wil.

Crow Garlic

Alnus glutinosa

Common Alder

alder Engl., aller s.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Durham, York., Lanc., Sussex, er Westm., ellar Cumb., oller Nhb., War., ollern Shrop., arl, orl Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Reading, Glouc., aul Hrf., harrul, orl-wood Glouc., arl-tree, arl-timber Hrf., oler Ches., owler w.York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, nw.Derby, n.Linc., Shrop., Hrf., owlder w.York., black-aller w.Som., waller, wallow, wallur Ches., Staff., Shrop. (waller has also been attributed to Salix alba), woller, wuller, wullow Shrop., hollard Som. (in Sussex hollard = dead branches of trees) (OHG erla), dog-tree n.Cy., w.York., ne.Lanc., whistle-wood n.Cy., Nhb. (see Salix), Irish mahogany Waterford

Alopecurus myosuroides

Black Grass

black-grass Bdf., e.Anglia, Sussex, I.Wight, black-squitch War., mouse-tails Wilt., land-grass Bdf., n.Som., bennet-weed Hert.

Alopecurus pratensis

Meadox Foxtail

fox-tail Staff., Suss., fox-tail grass Glouc., elbowwit-grass Lanark, bent Shrop. (collective for grasses), hunger-weed Ches. (attributed to “Alopecurus arvensis”).

Aloysia triphylla

lemon-plant w.Som., Devon, Corn., lemon-tree s.Cy., I.Wight

Lemon Verbena

Althaea officinalis

marsh-mallice I.Wight, marsh-mallow York., Suff., white-mallow (-), wimote Shrop.

Marsh Mallow

Alyssum saxatile

gold-dust Devon

Golden Alyssum

Amaranthus caudatus

cat-tail Nrf., Devon,


Amelanchier canadensis

solembury Glouc.

Snowy Mespilus

Ammophila arenaria


marem, marrum, murram Nrf., marum Surrey, moran Irel., marram-grass (ON mar-ālmr, marhālmr, literally “sea-straw” – Wright; the leaves are washed ashore and form wide beds or mats of dried plants), mat-grass (see preceding explanation), star n.Cy., Lanc., star-thack Linc. “coarse grass on sandy soil used for thatching”, sea-holm Corn., sea-reed (-), mat-grass Nrf., Hamp., sigh Linc., sea-bent Cumb., bent n.Cy., e.Anglia, bentle e.Anglia (collective names for grasses)

Anagallis arvensis

Scarlet Pimpernel

shepherd’s calendar Devon, shepherd’s clock Glouc., shepherd’s watch Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, shepherd’s dial Midl., shepherd’s sundial Suff., shepherd’s warning Linc., shepherd’s delight n.Linc., w.Som., shepherd’s glass Not., Rutland, shepherd’s weather-glass n.York., Not., Lanc., Linc., Nhp., Wilt., Devon, poor man’s weather-glass Lanark, Cumb., Ches., Nhp., War., Huntingdon, ploughman’s weatherglass Wilt., old-man Wilt., shepherd’s clock, shepherd-joy Buck., Dorset john-that-goes-to-bed-at-noon s.Ches., Nhp., sun-flower sw.Cumb., bird’s eye Oxf., Berw., Wilt., bird’s tongue Nrf., peeper w.York., tom-pimpernel York., pimpernel

Anagallis tenella

Bog Pimpernel

poor-man’s weather-glass Hamp., weatherglass Lakel., s.Buck., Wilt. (see A. arvensis)

Anaphalis margaritacea

Pearly Everlasting

moor-everlasting Nhb., ever-white Nhp., lady-never-fade Glouc., white-wort Hamp., white gowlan Nhb., cat’s foot w.York., pearl cudweed (-), old-sow Nrf.

Anchusa officinalis

eyebright w.Som.


Andromeda polifolia

marsh-holymore Dorset, marsh rosemary (-), bog-bell w.York.

Bog Rosemary

Anemone nemorosa

Wood Anemone

wind-flower Twd., York., Ches., Not., Leic., Nhp., War., Glouc., s.Buck., Devon; also attributed to Pulsatilla vulgaris, formerly named Anemone vulgaris (A bookish translation of the scientific name Anemone believed to mean “flower of the wind”. However, the Greek anemonè is a loan from Arabic Saqà’iq an-nu`màn a red flower, from nu`màn “blood”. The explanation “flower that opens on the slightest wind” is wrong

anemony (-), nemony Lanc., Linc., Rutland, Glouc., Som., Devon, nemmony Rutland, nemeny Devon, neminie Lanc., Glouc., emony, Linc., Som., Devon, enemy Linc., cuckoo Wilt., cuckoo-flower York., Ches., s.Buck., Wilt., cuckoo-spit Devon, w.Wor. (like the preceding appellation, these names probably refer to Pulsatilla vulgaris (formerly Anemone vulgaris), on account of its bell-like flowers; applied to Anemone nemorosa, these names fail to offer an explanation), drop-of-snow e.Sussex, moll-of-the-wood War., nedcullion N.Irel. (Gaelic Irel. nead cailleach), moon-flower Dor., soldier, white-soldiers s.Buck., bow-bells, underground Devon, snakes’ eye Dorset, snake-flower sw.Linc., Dorset (?), smell-foxes Hamp., smell-smock Hert. (this plant has no odour)

Anethum graveolens

dill n.Linc.  app. 3.5


Angelica sylvestris

Wild Angelica

smooth-kesh Cumb., ground-ash n.Cy., Nhb., ground-elder Ches. jack-jump-about Nhp., eggs-and-bacon Nhp., ghost-kex w.York., oat-skeiters Moray, water-kesh Cumb. (see Berula), fellon-grass Rxb. (see Imperatoria)

Anthemis arvensis, Anthemis cotula

margon, morgan Sussex., Hamp., I.Wight, margin I.Wight  app. 1.5.1; madder Hamp., Wil., Dorset, mader Dorset

Corn Chamomile, Stinking Chamomile

Anthemis cotula

Stinking Chamomile

maithen Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Dorset, meäden Dorset, mavin sussex, mathen Glouc., mathan Hamp., nathan War., mathern Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, mather War., Hrf., mathig Shrop., maythern, moythern Shrop., mauthern Wilt., mawthern I.Wight, may-tops Nhb. (attributed to Laminaria, a seaweed, along with may-weed), may-weed, may-wide Hert., Bdf., Hrf., Hamp., Sussex, Midl., Suff., Kent, Devon, maitheweed n.Cy., maythes ME, mayeðe OE.

dog-daisy w.York., Shrop., Kent, Devon, dog-banner m.York., dog-binder n.York., dog-fennel Midl., War., dog-finkle York., n.Cy. (not “tinkle”), dogstinks Lakel., dog-stinkers w.York.

horse-daisy Buck., balder(‘s) brae Nhb. (Norw. dial. baldrbraa, ON baldrs-bra, Swed. dial balders-bra, Dan. baldersbraa), poison-daisy Sussex

Anthoxanthum odoratum

pig-grass n.York., spikenard Wilt. ð app. 2.9.2

Sweet Vernal-grass

Anthriscus sylvestris

Cow Parsley

devil’s-meat, devil’s-metal Shetl., devil’s oatmeal Surr., devil’s parsley Ches., badman’s oatmeal Antrim, naughty-man’s oatmeal, naughty-man’s plaything War. (and other Umbelliferae, some being poisonous), dog-parsley Hert., sheep’s parsley Nrf., Kent, hare-parsley Som., coney-parsley Suss., cow-parsley Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex., Hamp., cow-mumble Cumb., Nrf., Essex, cow-weed Essex (also other Umbelliferae, see Heracleum, Anthemis cotula), wild parsley e.Radnor, Linc., Buck. (here attributed to the Shepherd’s Needle), rat’s bane w.Som., rabbit’s food Buck., rabbit’s meat York., n.Linc., War., Sussex, w.Som., n.Devon, scab-flower Cumb., hech-how Scot., ha-ho Irel. (da-ho appears to be a misprint), hi-ho, hi-how N.Irel., Londonderry (cf. Scot. hech-how for the Hemlock Conium maculatum), ciss ne.Lanc., cisweed n.York., cicely York., Derby (French dial. sesseû, French séséli, Latin seselis, Greek séselis “castor-oil plant or an Umbelliferous plant”), white-weed e.York., sweet-ash Glouc., bun, bunnon n.York. (see see bun in Plant parts), hemlock York., Ches., sw.Linc., keddle-dock Ches., keeshion N.Irel., keglus Ches. (see kecks in Umbelliferae), may-weed Wor. (see Anthemis cotula)

Anthyllis vulneraria

Vetch (Kidney)

yellow crow’s foot Buck., twin w.York., hens-and-chickens Wor., dog’s paise Banff, lamb-toe War., Nhp., Rutland, craw-nebs Nhb., pincushion Wilt., lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion Wilt., double-ladies’ double-pincushion

Antirrhinum majus


dragon Irel., Scot., Engl., draygon Scot., dragon’s head Berw., dragon’s mouth n.Linc., tiger’s mouth Suff., Sussex, lion’s jaw Kent, lion’s mouth Sussex, bunny-mouth Kent, Surrey (see bun in Plant parts), calve’s-snout Corn., dog(‘s) mouth Linc., w.York., Oxf., Devon, dog-snout Nrf., dog-barker Oxf., rabbit’s flower Devon, rabbit’s mouth Kent, rabbit Wilt., catch-fly n.Linc. (it is a somewhat sticky plant), mother’s nightcap Nhb.

Aphanes arvensis


dew-cup Selkirk, elf-shot Gall., colickwort Hert., bowel-hive-grass Scot. (bowel-hive is a disease), fire-grass England (beneficial in erysipelas), parsley-breakstone Scot., Ork., War., Suff., lamb’s foot Lanc., bear’s foot, ladies-mantle (?) (-)

Apium graveolens

Wild Celery

salary York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Wor., Oxf., Buck., Som., sallary Lanc., sallery s.Lanc., sollery se.Wor., names related to salt; the Common Sorrel, a sour plant, is also called celery, salad; ache Engl. (French ache), mile Rxb., see Chenopodium album

Apium nodiflorum

Fool’s Watercress

water case (for cress), pied water-cress Corn. swine’s cress Ork., n.York., cow-cress Hamp., fool’s cress*, brook-lime War. (see Veronica beccabunga), bilder Devon, fen-berry Corn. (erroneous attribution)

Aquilegia vulgaris

Common Columbine

nightcaps Wilt., granny’s nightcap Glouc., granny-hoods w.York., granny’s-bonnet Dorset, fool’s cap w.York., primrose-soldiers Wilt., Cain-and-Abel s.Wilt. (see Orchis), boots-and-shoes Corn., hens-and-chickens Nrf., lady’s shoes e.Anglia, lady’s slipper Corn., bachelor’s button Wilt., colourbine Linc., Nhp., curranbine Ches., cullavine n.Cy., Cumb., York., cullenby w.Cumb. (= columbine), snap-gragon Devon

Arabis alpina

Alpine Rockcress

may Som., march-and-may Nhp., bishop’s wig, white-rock, white mays Ches., snow-drift Devon, snow-on-the-mountain, snow-upon-the-mountain e.Linc., War., Hrf., Glouc., Sussex. Wilt., Som., snow-in-summer s.Not., Sussex, dusty-husband Ches., aunt hannah e.Anglia, lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion Linc., alice Devon (Alyssum ?),

Arabis caucasica

snow-on-the-mountain War.

Garden Arabis

Arachis hypogaea

monkey-nut Lanc.


Araucaria araucana

puzzle-monkey w.Som., monkey-tree w.Som.,


Arbutus unedo

cane-apple Irel.: Cork, caithne Gaelic: Killarney, strawberry-tree w.Som.

Strawberry Tree

Arctium lappa

Greater Burdock

cuckuts I.Wight, cucket, cuckit n.York. cuckle I.W., Dorset, Devon, Corn., cuckhold Corn., n.York., Cumb., Glouc., e.Anglia., Dorset, Som., Devon, cuckoo Dorset, cuckoldy-burrs Cumb., crockelty-bur Cumb., cuckoldy-burr-busses Som., Devon, Corn., cuckold-dock w.Som., nw.Devon., Corn., cuckle-dock Corn. (for dock see Water Lily), cuckold-buttons Som., Devon, cuckle-button Devon., cuckle-moors Dorset, cockle Wilt., Hamp., Dorset, cockly-burrs, cockelty-burrs Cumb., cockle-buttons Devon, Corn.  app. 2.3, bazzies Kent (the flower-heads), buddy-bud n.Cy., Nhb. (the burr), butter-dock Corn. (see Rumex obtusifolius), bur-docken Scot., n.York., burdock (-), hurr-burr Leic., Shrop., tuzzy-muzzy Glouc., n.Wilt. (also “ragged, dishevelled; from the appearance of its burrs), sticky buttons Devon, bachelor’s button Devon (the burrs) billy-button, beggar’s buttons Devon (the burrs), soldier(‘s) buttons Wilt., clots n. Cy. York. Ches., clouts Ches., cluts n. Cy., clot-bur Cumb., n.York. clod-bur Cumb., York., clite Glouc. (see Galium aparine), thistle Devon., flapper-bags Scot.

Arctium minus

cuckoo-buttons w.Som., n.Devon, guckoo-buttons w.Som. (see Arctium lappa)

Lesser Burdock

Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi


nashag Caith., gnashicks Banff (Gaelic Scotland cnaimhseag), brawlins n.Scot., rapperdandy Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., burren-myrtle Galway (so called from its abundance on the Burren mountains), cranberry Aberdeen (see Vaccinium oxycoccum),

Areca catechu

ragonet (areca nut) (-)

Betel Nut

Arenaria islandica ?

benner-gowan Scot.

mountain daisy

Aristolochia sipho

dutchman’s pipe Glouc., pipe-vine (-).

Broad-leaved Birthwort

Armeria maritima

Sea Pink

sea-daisy Aberd., s.Scot., n.Cy., Sussex, Devon, Corn., sea-pink Ayr., s.Scot., n.Cy., Cumb., w.York., ne.Lanc., n.Ches., Staff., Devon, Corn., scawfell-pink Cumb., marsh-daisy Cumb. (?), french-pink, cliff-rose, rock-rose Devon, sweet-gabies Kent, edging Devon (plant suitable for edgings), pincushion Devon, Suff., lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion Ches., Dorset, lady’s pincushion Hamp., profolium Hamp., thrift Devon ?

Armoracia rusticana

reefort, reefart, rifart, ryfart Scot. (French raifort “pungent root”), red-cole, red coal, rae-coll Clydesdale

Horse Radish

Arrhenatherum elatior

haver-grass Cumb.

False Oat-grass

Arrhenatherum elatior subsp. bulbosum

False Oat-grass (tuberous subspecies)

button-grass, button-twitch, butter-twitch Cumb., swine-arnots Scot. (s. earth nut; has tuberous roots), swine’s murricks Shetl., Ork. knot-couch Wilt., knot-grass Scot., e.Cy., Essex, Nhb., Wilt., Hert., Bdf. (here attributed to Agrostis stolonifera) from its tubers “looking… like a string of beads”; lobbin-grass Londonderry (the bulbous variety), onion-couch Glouc., w.Cy., onion-grass S.Buck., pearl, pearl-grass Antrim, Donegal, pirl-grass Scot. (the preceeding names on account of the small pearl-like tubers peculiar to this variety)

Artemisia abrotanum


lad’s-love Scot., Aberdeen, Gall., n.Cy., Nhb., n.Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Midl., nw.Derby, Not., Linc., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., e.Anglia, Sussex, s.Hamp., Devon, Corn., boy’s love Ches., maid’s love Nhp., old-man York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Rutland, Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Oxf., London, Cumb., Nrf., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Devon, Corn., old-man’s love Nhb., Berk., Suff., maiden’s ruin Devon, maiden-delight Corn., mother-wood n.Linc., sitherwood Scot., Cumb., Irel., sidderwood Gall., sovereign-wood Essex, sloven-wood e.Anglia (for “southern wood”), apple-reengie Fife, apple-ringie, apple-ringy, apple-riennie Scot., overengie Aberd., “may prob. be a corr. of Ofr. averoine” Wright, citron-wood Scot.

Artemisia absinthium


wormod, wermod Nhb., wormuth, wormeth Devon, wermout Pemb., wormit n.Cy., Nhb., Devon, wormöd, wermöd OE (< worm wood, whence also Germ. Wermut; the plant was used in the preparation of a medicine as well as an alcoholic drink), old-woman Shrop. (corruption of wormod ?), gall-wood Scot.

Artemisia maritima

savin Sussex

Sea Wormwood

Artemisia vulgaris


muggert Irel, Scot., Cumb., muggart Banff, Aberd., sw.Scot., Gall., mugger Ayr., muggons, muggins Scot., mugweed Ches., mugwood Dur., Cumb., York., Shrop., mingwort n.Cy., mugwort Caith.

bulwand Shetl. & Ork., bowlocks Wigtown, moofard Caith., fat-hen s.Buck., apple-pie Ches., green-ginger Linc., fellon-herb Corn., mother-wort e.York. (also A. absinthia), sailor’s-tobacco Huntingdon.

Arum maculatum

Cuckoo Pint

jack-in-the-box, jack-in-box N.Irel., Berw., w.Som., jack-in-the-pulpit n.Linc., school-master e.Sussex., lamb-in-a-pulpit Devon, lamb-lakens, lamb-lakins n.Cy., Nhb., Nhp.

parson-in-his-smock n.Linc., parson-in-the-pulpit York., Ches., w.Som. (also attributed to Aconitum napellus), parson-and-clerk Devon, priest’s pilly Westm., priest’s pintel Dur., Cumb., Derby, Linc., priesties Lanc.

poison-berry n.York., Wilt., Devon, poison-maur Devon, poison-root Wilt., ox-berry w.Wor. (the fruit), adder-grass Nhb., adder’s meat, adder’s tongue Devon, Corn. (the bright red berries), snake’s meat Devon, snake’s victuals Glouc., Wilt., snake’s flower sw.Cumb., Hamp., Dorset, snake’s food Devon

bloody-fingers Hamp., Berw., bloody man’s fingers Hrf., Radnor, Wor. (from its scarlet berries), bloody thumbs e.Wor., dead-man’s fingers Surrey, Inverness, Wor., Nhb., Buck., w.Som., Shrop., Glouc., Kent, Sussex, Devon, deed-man’s fingers, -thumb War., dead-man’s hand Hamp., War., Glouc., Sussex, Nhb., dead-man’s thumb Nhb., Sussex, de’il’s foot, devil’s foot Nhb., dead-man’s bells Scot., Aberdeen, Nhb., dead-men’s bellows n.Cy., bloody-bells n.York., ramson Cumb, ram’s horns Sussex, ramp (see Allium ursinum), great dragon, small-dragon Sussex, long-purple War.

cocky-baby I.Wight, parsonbilly-cock n.York., cuckoo-cock Essex, cuckoo-pint Sussex, e.Anglia., Nhp., Leic., cuckoo-flower Nhp., cuckoe-pint s.Berw., cuckoo-point w.York.  app. 2.3; bobbins n.Scot., bobby-joan Nhp., Corn., bobbin-and-joan Nhp., dog-bobbins Nhp., dog-cocks Wilt., dog’s dibble n.Devon, dog’s ears s.Pemb., dog’s lugs Fife, dog’s tassel, dog’s tausle Som., dog-spear Som., hobble-gobbles Nhp., Kent, dog-fingers Wales, Som., dog-mint s.Pemb., lily-grass Sussex, lily Wilt., wild lily Devon, aron Scot., arrow-root Dorset (Lat. arum < Greek aron). (Some of the preceeding names have been attributed to species of orchids or other flowers).

drake’s feet n.Linc., crake-feet n&e.York., trape-feet n.Linc. craw-feet York., crow-foot Lanc., Dur., Cumb., York., craw-taes Cumb., crowdy-kates Devon.

wake-robin Scot., Rxb., Ches., War., Dorset, War., Berk., Sussex, Corn. (also attributed to Silene latifolia and to an orchid Dactylorhiza maculata).

Asparagus officinalis (cultivated)

Asparagus (cultivated)

sparrygrass, sparrow-grass Scot., grass War., Wor., Nrf., Sussex, London sparragrass e.York., se.Wor., sparrergrass Berk., sperage Glouc. (corruptions of asparagus)

Asperula cynanchica

shepherd’s bedstraw Glouc., quinancy-wort


Asplenium ruta-muraria

rue-  Devon

Wall Rue

Aster tripolium

Sea Aster

michaelmas-daisy Ches., Devon, farewell-daisy, farewell-summer Wilt., summer(‘s) farewell Som., Dorset (a late bloomer), musk-button Glouc., hog’s beans Essex

Astragalus glycyphyllos

wild liquorice Lanark

Wild Liquorice

Athyrium filix-femina

lady-bracken Rxb., Dmf.

Lady Fern

Atriplex hortensis

golden-herb n.Cy., butter-leaves Glouc., mercury Linc. ( prob. Mercurialis), orache (French arroche)


Atriplex patula

fat-hen Dur., Nhb., w.York., e.Anglia (see Chenopodium album), orach (French arroche)

Common Orache

Atriplex prostrata

hard-head Leic. (see Centaurea nigra)

Spear-leaved Orache

Atropa belladonna

Deadly Nightshade

dwale Scot., York., Devon, dwal, dwale-bluth, dwale-flower Devon (to dwall, dwale = to wander in mind), deadly-dwale, wolf’s bane, drowsy mandragora, dreamy mandragora Frf., satan-cherries n.York., naughty-man’s cherry Buck., mekilwort Scot. (prob. me-kill-), dog-berry Dur., jacob’s ladder Ayr.

Aubretia deltoides

sheerwort Dorset


Aucuba japonica

sparked-laurel Som. (sparked = variegated)

Spotted Laurel

Avena fatua

wild corn Scot., Rxb., flaver Scot.: Dmf., kentish-longtails Kent, poor oats Som.

Wild Oat

Avena sativa subsp. sativa

Cultivated Oat

awt Lanc., aet, ate Shetl., ait Scot., Berw., Nhb., Cumb., n.York., eet m.York., yait Cumb., m.York., yeat Nhb., Cumb., yet Nhb., Dur., e.Anglia, Devon, yett Nhb., yit Scot., oath Wxf., owet Devon, uet m.York., w.York., Rutland, wet, whet Devon, wet-corn n.York., wat York., whoat York., Lanc., Ches., Staff., Derby, whooat w.York., whot n&w.York., s.Lanc., n.Linc., woat Cumb. Ches., sw.Linc., Dorset, Som., wot Lakel., Cumb., York., nw.Linc, Hamp., wōt, wuet m.York., wud Lanc., Ches., wut w.York., e.Lanc., Ches., Derby, n.Linc., Rutland, War., Shrop., Glouc., Berk., Hert., Cumb., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., whut Lanc., Surrey, Sussex, wuth I.Wight, Wilt., w.Som., Devon app. 2.10

haver Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Linc., havre Cumb., havver Cumb., Westm., York., Linc., aver w.York., hauver Scot., haber, hauber n.Cy. (Dutch haver, Norw. dial. havre, Swed. hafre, e.Fries hafer, Germ. hafer “oat”).

corn Scot., N.Irel., York., nw.Derby, Nhp., Hunt., flop-oats nw.Devon, cow-flop, Devon side-aways n.York., way-corn York. “when growing along roads”, reed-oat Ches., horse-tail oats Bdf. (a variety).

graan w.York., graain Berk., I.Wight, grain Scot., England, grin N.Irel. (husks of oat) (Germ. granne), skeg Nor., Corn. “bearded oats” (ON skegg “beard”), pellas, pelles, pillas, pillis, pillus, pilez Corn. (Avena sativa subsp. orientalis)

Ballota nigra

Black Horehound

wirral, worral, wurral Wilt., dunny-leaf nettle s.Buck., double-dumb-nettle Wilt., stinking-roger Shrop., horehound (-)

Barbarea vulgaris

Common Wintercress

yellow-weed s.Scot., n.Cy., yellow-rocket War., Lanark, yellow july-flower Lanark, yellow cress w.York., land-cress York., War., Midl., s.Cy., I.Wight

Bellis perennis


daisy Scot., Irel., Ches., Linc., Devon, app. 1.8 (not “eye of the day”, ‘from its opening and closing its flower with the daylight’ (not factual), gracy-daisy Devon, dog-daisy n.Cy., Cumb., York., Lanc., n.Linc., march-daisy, shepherd’s daisy, silver-pennies Nhp., bairnwort York., bennert Durham, banwood, bessy-banwood e.York., banewort, banwort, banwood, benwort Nhb., Cumb. York., banward s.Durham, hens-and-chickens w.York., Ches., Nhp., War., Shrop., Oxf., Surrey, w.Som., Devon, clocker an’ bords Nhb. (“hen and chicks), mother-of-a-thousand Nhp. (it flecks lawns and meadows in large quantities), cockiloorie, cockaloorie Shetlands, cat-posy Cumb., curl-doddy sw.Scot., button w.York., se.Linc. bachelor’s button Linc., Shrop., billy-button Shrop., sweep n.York., dicky-dairy Ches. “A children’s name for almost any flower”, nails Wilt., bruisewort England, baiyan-flower ne.Lanc., gowan Scot., Nhb., Cmb., Dur., gowan-head Dmf., gowan-tap Lanark (the head of a daisy), gowlan(d) n.Cy. Caith, Nhb., Devon, Mary-gowland Wooler; gowan, gowlan etc. meaning “yellow” are names given to several species of yellow flowers and are prob. misapplied to the daisy, a white flower.

Berberis vulgaris


pipperidge n.Cy., Cumb., Linc., Hert., e.Anglia., s.Cy., Hamp., Suff., Essex, pepperidge Hert., Suff., piperidge Cumb., piprick Linc. (from its sour berries), wood-sore Oxf. (“sour”), red-pip Hamp., maiden-barberry War., guild(-tree) Selk.

Bertholletia excelsa

shoe-nut Devon (from its shape)

Brazil Nut

Berula erecta

water-kex w.York., water-parsley Kent

Lesser Water-parsnip

Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima

wild spinach Irel., I.Wight

Sea Beet

Beta vulgaris var. flavescens

butter-leaves Shrop.

Chard, Sicilian Beet

Beta vulgaris var. rapacea


mangle York., Not., Linc., Suff., mangel-wurzel, mangold-wurzel England (Germ. mangold “beer”, wurzel “root”), root-of-scarcity Bdf.

Betula pendula

Silver Birch

birk Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Derby, Not., Linc., burk Cumb., York. brick Nhb., birken Scot., Nhb. (Dan. birk, Norw. bjerk, Sw. björk), bedwen Westm., Corn. (Welsh bedwen, Breton bezven), paper-beech Wilt.

Blackstonia perfoliata

yellow-centaury w.York., yellow-sanctuary Ches.


Blechnum spicant

herring-bone fern Cumb.

Hard Fern

Bolboschoenus maritimus

spurt-grass Kent.

Sea Club-rush

Borago officinalis


star-flower, bee-bread, bee-plant Devon, flavour-plant War., cool-tankard Nhp. (used in a beverage called cool-tankard)

Botrychium lunaria

moon-wort Banff  app. 2.11; shoe-the-horse Cumb., unshoe-the-horse Cumb.


Brachypodium sylvaticum

anghill-grass Midlands (anthill?)

False Brome

Brassica napus

smooth-cadlock n.Cy., Midl., shirt Scot., winter rape


Brassica napus subsp. rapifera var. napobrassica

swaddie Caith. (“Swedish”), Swede turnip (-), baga-root Corn., baggie Scot., Nhb., rutabaga English (Swedish dial. rotabagge), rooty-baker Corn. (for rutabaga), yellow Not.

Swede, Rutabaga

Brassica napus var. oleifera

yellow-weed Ches., yellow-flower Ches. cole(wort) n.Linc., Hert. (see Kale)

Oil Seed Rape

Brassica nigra

carlock Glouc., Essex (see Sinapis arvensis)

Black Mustard

Brassica oleracea

wild cole Nhb., wild kale Nhb., cave n.Cy.

Wild Cabbage

Brassica oleracea var. acephala

Kale, Curled Kale

kole Shetl., Ork., colewort (-), kale Irel., Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Glouc., kail Scot., N.Irel., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., Ches., Bdf., kayle Wexf., cael ne.York., cail m.York., keal Scot. n.Cy., Cumb., Westm., York., ne.Lanc., Derby, Glouc., keale Cumb., e.York, keall Cumb., keayle Westm., keeal n&e.York., keel n.Cy., kel Ches., kele, kyel, kyell Nhb., kial Scot., n.York. “cabbage, green of all kinds”, kale-runt Scot., Banff, Ayr., Edinb., Gall., N.Irel. (the stem).

curly-greens Cumb., crilly-greens nw.Devon (curly); curdly-greens w.Som., wintergreen w.Som., early-hearts Down (mature, early cabbages), curly-kale, curly-kail Scot., curly-plant e.Fife

Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

curlyflower n.Linc., curly Scot., Perth, N.Irel., Antrim, curl-doddy Scot. (see Pinus sylvestris)


Brassica oleracea var. botrytis forma asparagoides

brockilow War., Wor., Cumb., Corn., broccolow Corn.


Brassica oleracea var. capitata


cole n.Cy., York., Derby, Pemb., Linc., Hert., s.Cy., Sussex, Som., Devon, Corn., coul Som., caul nw.Devon, Corn., cowl Pemb., bowkail, boll-kail Scot.: Perth, popple Cumb. (the seed; popple = also pebble, cobble), callards I. Wight, Hamp. (leaves and shoots)

Brassica oleracea var. capitata

red-cail Scot. (the red variety)

Red Cabbage

Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa

green-kail Scot.


Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera

feather-legs Nhp., nob Suff., Devon,

Brussel sprouts

Brassica rapa subsp. campestris var. rapifera


turnip Scot., Nhb., Lakel., Midl., Derby, Linc. Oxf., Buck., Suff., Wilt., Devon, carlock England widespread, York., Berw., Nhp., Suff., Essex, carlic Bedf., careluck Glouc., charlock Sussex, churlick Hamp., kerlack Not., Nhp., kerlick Berw., Oxf. (see Sinapis arvensis), naphew Shrop. (French naveau, modern navet), stark n.Cy. (a variety of turnip), knoll Kent, dowball Linc., purple-top

Briza media

Common Quaking-grass

doddle-grass Sussex, Wilt., Devon, didder-grass Lanc., diddery-docks Dur., dawther-grass Kent (dodder), dothering-dick n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., dothering-dickies n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., dothering-dillies Dur. app. 3.5; dothering-docks n.York., dothering-ducks e.Dur., dothering-grass Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., n.Lanc., dothering jockies York., dothering-nancy Cumb. totter-bobs sw.Lanc., tottering-grass w.York., totty-grass se.Lanc.  app. 3.1

trembling-grass York., s.Lanc., Ches., Suff., tremblin-grass, ladies’ hair Nhb., thrimlin-jockies e.York. (trembling), swaggering-grass Sussex, wiggle-waggle Sussex, wigwag-wanton Buck., wigwagon, wagtails Wilt., whackering-grass w.York.  app. 3.6

quake-grass Sussex, quaker Lanc., quaker-grass York., ne.Lanc., Ches., Nhp., Wor., Berk., w.Som., cow-quakers, cow-quake Ches., Derby, Shrop., Nhp., w.York., earth-quakes Nhp., quakan-grass Nhb.

shiver-grass Berk., Hamp., shivery-shakeries Wilt., shaker Ches., n.Linc., Shrop., Wilt., shaking-grass Shrop., s.Buck., Devon, shaky-grass Buck, Devon (attributed to Populus tremula), hay-shakers Ches., silver-shakers Rxb., Dmf., Gall., silver-shakle Gall., lady-shake w.York., lady’s hair, ladies’ hair Nhb., Linc., e.Anglia, maid(‘s)-hair Nrf., I.Wight, fairy-grass Limerick, nodding-Isabel Lanc., silver-ginglers Rxb., shimmy Wilt., Somer. (attributed to Calystegia sepium), suisilk Not.   app. 3.2; woman’s tongue Berk.

Bromus hordaceus

Soft Brome

lob-grass Hamp., w.Som., lop-grass Glouc., Hamp. (from the hanging spike; lob = to droop, especially of leaves), haver-grass Cumb., duck-havver Cumb. (Germ. hafer “oat”), erwuts Dorset (for “oats”), bashaw-grass Buck., goose-grass Nhb., goose-corn Cumb., cock-grass Cumb., cock-head e. Anglia, Nfr., n. Suss., cock-and-hens Waterford, Nhb., Devon bull-grass Roxb., Nhb., blubber-grass e.Anglia, bob-grass Wilt., Dorset, mouse-ear grass w.York., okrabung Shetl., Ork.,

Bromus secalinus

Rye Brome

droke York., drook Ches., drauk Nrf., drawk York., Ches., Nrf. (see Lolium temulentum), cheat Linc., chess(grass), cheese-seed weed Hert., goose-corn Scot.

Bryonia dioica

White Bryony

hedge-grape Wor., jack-in-the-edge Hamp. (hedge), Canterbury-jack Kent, elphamy n.Cy., wild vine Ches., War., Hamp., wild hop York., hop Glouc. (by confusion), wild cucumber War., poisoning-berries w.York., snake-berry Suff., tetter-berry Hamp., perhaps because of the red pimple-like (tetter) berries, ache Corn. (ache-mor bryony root), cow’s lick Nrf., murrain, murrain-berries Nrf., murrain-root Hamp. (the root).

Buddleia globosa


Orange Ball Tree

Bunium bulbocastanum

Great Pignut

earthnut Irel., Scot., England, aerthnut Som., arnot n.Irel., Scot., Clyde, arnut Scot., Roxb., Ayr., n.Cy. Nhb., Westm., w.York., arrnut N.Irel., Antrim, Down, Donegal, aunut n.York., awnut n.Cy., earnit Ayr., ernit sw.Scot., ernut Toxb., Dmf., yarnut n.Cy., w.York., n.Linc., Ches., n.Linc., yannut, yennet, e.York., yennut n.York., yernut York., Ches., yethnut Ches., yownut, yonut Westm., yearthnuts s.Lanc., yarnut Scot., Nhb., Lanc., Linc., hornic Scot., yowe-yonut, yowe-yornut, yower, ewer Cumb., gernut n.Cy., York., hare-nut Wxf., w.York., e.Lanc., Dorset, vare-nut, fare-nut, fern-nut Corn., gernut n.Cy., York., gennet York., jurnut n.Cy., Ches., Nhp., job-jurnal, jock-jurnals, jacky-jurnal Cumb. (French gernotte, jarnotte < Norw. dial. jordnot, literally “earth nut”), ground-nut Hert., Som., pig-nut Scot., Ayr., n.Cy., Westm., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Not., Linc., Nhp., War., Shrop., Huntingdon, Midl., Suss., Suff., Essex., Wilt., Som., peg-nut Midl., pig’s nut w.Som., underground-nut nw.Devon.

bad man’s bread York., devil’s oatmeal, devil’s bread York., swine-bread Inverness, cat-nut York., gourlock Gall., gourlins Scot., curluns Gall., hornecks Scot., lousy-arnut Aberdeen, Perth, lucy-arnut Fife, scabb-hands, scabbly-hands Cumb., killas, killimore, kelly Corn. (see Umbelliferae), Cain-and-Abel w.Durham (?)

Caesalpinia bonducella

molluka Scot., crospunk Scot. “drifted to the shores of the western islands”, Virgin-Mary’s nut w.Scot.,

Molucca Bean

Calamintha nepeta

cat-mint York., dog-mint s.Pemb.

Lesser Calamint

Calendula officinalis


lady’s purses Ches., Shrop., mally-gowl n.York., gool e.Suff., gollan(d) Nhb., m.York., lady-gold Derby (gowl, gollan = goul, gold, yellow  app. 1.2.1), rud I.Wight (ruddy),

Calluna vulgaris


besom Devon, Corn., basom, bisom bizzom, busom, basam Devon, red-heath Hamp., bent Ches., broom n. York. (see Bramble), moor York., griglan, greglan, grigles, grigling Corn., small-heath Hamp.

Calluna vulgaris, Erica cinerea

Heather, Bell Heather

ling Irel., Scot., and all counties down to Shrop. and e.Anglia; also given to other species found in heathland, such as Empetrum, Carex, Nardus, Schoenus and others; appears to be a collective name, somewhat synonym of “heath”

Caltha palustris

Marsh Marigold

bull-buttercup Essex, bull-flower Devon, bull’s eye Dorset, Som., bull-dogs Devon, butter-blob, butter-bleb York., yellow-blob Leic., moll-blob Nhp., Wor., molly-blob Nhp, may-blob w.York., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War., Wilt., water-blobs w.York., n.Devon, Not., Leic., Rutland, Nmp., War., Oxf., water-bleb sw.Linc., Nhp., Wilt., Dorset, water-blubber Glouc. may-blub, may-bubble Wilt., bublicans York., publican York., Oxf. (bleb = blister, bubble), may-flower N.Irel., Londonderry, Donegal, sw.Cumb., Ches., Linc., w.Wor., Shrop., Nhp., War., Glouc., mere-blob Derby, mire-blob Nhp., mare-blob Derby (OE mere “pond”, French mare id.), horse-blob s.Not., Leic., Nhp., Wor., Surrey, horse-buttercup w.Som. (by folk etymology, after mare-blob after “mare” understood as female horse instead of “mire”),

great buttercup s.Buck., king-cup Irel., Lanark, Fife, Perth, Hamp., sw.Cumb., York., Nhp., Buck., Nrf., Nhb., War., e.Anglia, Kent, Dorset, Essex, Sussex, Som., Devon, king, king’s cob Cumb., Nrf., Berk., Hert., Suff., water-goggles Oxf., marsh-mallow n.York., Devon,

buttercup Devon, butter-flower Wilt., water-buttercup York., Oxf., Surr., Devon, johnny-cranes Nhp., john-georges Buck.  app. 1.2.1 gowan Nhb., Cumb., gollan, golland Caith., Nhb., yellow-gollan Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., sw.Cumb., water-golland, water-gowland s.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., York., water-gowan Cumb., open-gowan Cumb.  app. 1.2. crow-cranes Oxf., Nhp., crow-flower Som., marigold n.York  app. 1.4, fire-o’gold n.Buck., wild-fire Kirc., golden-cup w.Som., gilty-cup Wilt., Dorset, Som., gilt-cup Hamp. (see Ranunculus spp.), halcup Hamp., carr-guld Lanc. (attributed to Chrysanthemum segetum; carr = pond), paddock-flower n.Scot. (paddock = frog), meadow-bout Lanc., Ches., Shrop., meadow-bright Nhp., boots Ches., Shrop., yellow-boots Ches., chirms Nhb., crazy s.Lanc., Glouc., Berw., crazy-bet, crazy-betty Wilt, crazy-betsey Little Langford, crazy s.Lanc., Glouc., Berw., crazy-bet, yellow-crazies Wilt. (see Ranunculus)

Calystegia sepium (see also Convolvulus arvensis)

Larger Bindweed

withyvine Berk., Devon, withywine Glouc. Wilt., withwine Glouc. Wilt., withywind Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, w.Dorset (here attributed wrongly to Anagallis arvensis), Som., Devon, withywing Devon, wythywind Devon, Hamp., witheywind Som., withyweed Devon, widtherwine Glouc. Oxf. Wilt., withwind Glouc., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset (all from “vine”; withen = twisted, see also Salix)

wood-bind Suss., great bindweed Ches., lily-bind w.York., sheep-bine Essex, bithy-wine Dorset (for “vine”), devil’s garters Wxf., Pemb., devil’s gut Nrf. ne.Linc., knutsford-devil Ches., creeper Not., jack-run-in-the-country York., robin-run-a-hedge s.Lanc., Ches., Hamp., ground-ivy Devon, seven-year’s love Corn.,

nightcaps Linc., Wilt., granny’s nightcap Wilt., old-man’s nightcap Sussex, grandmother’s nightcap Sussex, lady’s nightcap Hamp., Wilt., lady’s smock e.York., Nhp., War., Sussex., Devon, Corn., hedge-bells I.Wight, Cumb., bellvine (-), white-smock Devon, white lily sw.Cumb., harvest-lily Surrey, lily Wilt., Hamp., I.Wight (attributed to Fallopia convolvulus), lily-flower Hamp.

Calystegia soldanella

scurvy-grass I.Wight,

Sea Bindweed

Camelina sativa

dutch-flax, cheat Nhp.


Campanula persicifolia

peach-bell Devon,

Peach-leaved Bellflower

Campanula glomerata

dane’s blood Cumb.(?), see Dwarf Elder, star Wilt.,

Clustered Bellflower

Campanula latifolia

Giant Bellflower

canterbury-bell Som., wild spinach w.York (the young shoots are boiled and eaten; this species ?)

Campanula medium

gowk’s hose Sterling

Canterbury Bell

Campanula pyramidalis

steeple-bells Devon, perrymedoll Suff. (corruption of pyramidalis)

Chimney Bellflower

Campanula rotundifolia


bluebell Ayr., Cumb., ne.York., Derby, s.Not., Hert., Dorset, Devon, blue-bottle Berw., blaver Scot., Twd., Nhb., blawort Scot., Bnff., blaewort Aberd., blue-blauers, blue-blavers Roxb. hare-bell ne.York., w.Ches., Gall., Berw., Rnf., Perth, Aberdeen, heath-bell Nhp., witch-bells Scot., Fife, old-man’s bell ne Scotland, school-bell Wilt., thimble n.Scot., Glouc., Wilt., thimels Lothian, gowk’s thimles, gowk’s thumbles ne.Scot., Banff, lady’s thimble Nhb., e.Anglia, w.Som., children of Israel Wilt. (a small garden variety)

Campanula trachelium

haskwort (-), halswort (-) (Germ. halskraut – Wright 3: 77); Coventry-bells, Coventry-rape War.

Nettle-leaved Bellflower

Cannabis sativa


hemp Scot., England, femble Linc., e.Anglia, s.Cy., Sussex, fimble n.Linc., Essex, Sussex (the female plant), seed-hemp, thistle-hemp n.Cy., Derby, Essex (the female plant), carl-hemp Scot., Cumb., Linc., e.Anglia, s.Cy., Suff., carle-hemp Scot., n.Cy., e.Anglia, s.Cy. (the male plant), spoots Cumb. (stalks used as candles), bunnel Cumb., w.York., Westm. (see bun in Plant parts), gallow-grass Suff., Som., neckweed n.Cy., n.York., e.Anglia, Saint Andre’s lace, bastard brother’s badge (Wright 2: 544)

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Shepherd’s Purse

pick-purse n.Cy., pick-pocket Ches., Not., Nhp., Wor., Buck., Nrf., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wilt. Som., Devon, pick-packet-to-London w.York., mother’s heart Scot., s.Cy., Lanc., Glouc., Midl. (heart-shaped seed pods), pick-your-mother’s heart-out War., shepherd’s pedler Wilt., shepherd’s pocket Buck., shepherd’s pouch(es) Hert., I.Wight, rifle-the-ladies’ pouches Banff, lady’s purses Nhb., e.Anglia, poverty-purse n.Linc., pepper-and-salt Midl., case-weed n.Cy., toy-wort n.Engl., crow-pecks Wilt., ward-seed Devon blind-weed York., naughty-man’s plaything War., stone-on-the-wall Linc., bad man(‘s) oatmeal Durham

Cardamine amara

land-cress Ches., whitsunday Devon

Large Bittercress

Cardamine hirsuta

land-cress w.Ches., War., Hamp., lamb-cress Devon (for ” land”), touch-me-not Ches.

Hairy Bittercress

Cardamine pratensis

Lady’s Smock

lady’s smock Ork., Banff, Dmf., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Linc., Leic., Nhp., Nhb.,War., Wor., Shrop., Radnor, Glouc., Hert., Suff., Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Som., Devon, Corn., lady-flock Not., lady’s glove Nhp., lady’s milk-sile York., cuckoo Glouc., Devon “Every plant which has no other title was called a cuckoo”, Buck., Essex; cuckoo-flower Ireland, Nhb., York., Ches., Linc., Leic., War., Glouc., Suff., Surrey., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, w.Som., Kent, Devon, water-cuckoo Wilt.. guckoo-buttons Som., cuckoo-pint Wilt., e.Sussex., Leic., cuckoo-pintle Leic., e.Sussex., cuckoo-spit n.Cy. cuckoo’s shoes-and-stocking s.Wales.

meadow-flower Cumb., bog-flower n.York., pink, spink(s), bog-spink(s), Nhb., bird’s eye Cumb., York., Shrop., gillyflower, Whitsuntide gillyflower Glouc., Dur., lamb-lakens Cumb., carsons sw.Scot. (French cresson “cress”), meadow-kerses n.York., s.Pemb., laylock Wilt. (lilac-colour), lucy-locket Derby, may-flower Nhb., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Hamp., nightingale-flower Hamp., Essex, pick-folly Nhp., pig’s eyes Essex, pigeon’s eye n.York., smell-smock Nhp., War., Glouc., Oxf., Buck., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, smick-smock Glouc., Oxf., Hamp., head-wark Cumb., pincushion Nhb. (?), shoes-and-stockings Buck. (?), lady-smock York., apple-pie York., Canterbury bells Nrf. (?),

Carduus (acanthoides or tenuiflorus)

fish-belly Cumb. (whitish under-leaf)

Welted Thistle

Carduus nutans

Queen Anne’s thrissel Berw.

Nodding Thistle

Carex divisa

Dived Sedge

hosk Pemb. (Welsh hesg “sedge”), bog-reed Irel.; iron-grass Ches. (attributed to Carex praecox)

Carex echinata

bruckles, brochars-and-stars Scot.

Star Sedge

Carex elata, C. paniculata

Tufted Sedge, Greater Tussock Sedge

hassock Engl., Scot., hassack Linc., Nhp., Pemb., hassick I.Wight, Buchan, Dorset, assock s.Not., hussick Shetl, hossock n.York., hussock Gall., York., ne.Lanc, Nhp., hazzick Berk., huzzick, huzzock s.Ches. > app. 2.7.8 tussock a tuft of coarse, a clump of sedge, hummock-grass w.York.

Carex hirta

goose-grass w.Som. (?)

Hairy Sedge

Carex, collective names


shear-grass Scot., Nhb., w.York., Leic., Midl., War., share-grass Linc., share-tack n.Linc. “a kind of coarse grass; a kind of sedge”, hard-grass Staff., sour-grass Ayr., Lanark, moor-palm(s,) moor-paums n.Cy., York., carnation-grass Glouc., w.Sussex, Shrop., Staff., w.Som., chate Nrf., pry Scot., Roxb., Dmfr., Nhb., Cumb., Not., Essex, prye Nhb., prie-grass Not., pink-grass Ches., pink-more Wilt. “a rough grass in water-meadows which cattle refuse to eat” (prob. a Carex sedge)

Carlina acaulis

ground-thistle War., Wor., pod-thistle Nhp. (?)

Stemless Carline Thistle

Carpinus betulus


hurst-beech Nrf., Kent, Sussex (from its growth in hursts – Wright), horse-beech Kent, Suss., Hamp. (for hurst), harber(-tree) e.Anglia, Suff., harbur, arbour Sussex, hornbeam, hard-beam (-), white-beech Ches.

Carum carvi



Castanea sativa

french-nut Devon, rough-nut Ches.,

Sweet Chestnut

Centaurea cyanus


blaver, blaewort Nhb., blue-bottle York., n.Linc., Shrop., Oxf., Wilt., blue-buttons Staff., bluecap Hamp., Nhp., Kent, corn-binks Devon, corn-bottle, corn blue-bottle Nhp., hawdod York., witch-bells n Cy., bachelor’s button York., Derby

Centaurea montana, C. cyanus, C. nigra, Knautia arvensis

loggerhead Glouc., Oxf., n.Buck., Nhp., loggerums Wilt. (from their rounded heads; logger = rounded things)

Scabious, Star-thistle, collective names

Centaurea nigra

Common Knapweed

bund-weed Scot., e.Anglia, Nrf., bun-weed Suff. (see bun in Plant parts), clobweed Hert., cock-head n. Cy., Midl., hard-head Leic., Derby, n.Cy., Midl., Nhb., Cumb., w.York., ne.Lanc., Glouc., Ches., n.Linc., Wor., Shrop. (also attributed to Scabiosa, Lychnis, Ranunculus and other species), horse-hardhead Devon, horse-knobs, horse-knops n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Nhp. (horse = hoarse)

knob-weed e.York., Nhp., n.Hert., knapweed (-) (knap = knob  app. 2.2), knot-grass Hert., knot-weed Nhp. (also Centaurea cyanus, C. scabiosa), horse-snap Devon, horse-knot Angus, sw.Scot., n.Cy., Nhp., Kent  app. 2.6; button-weed Suss. (from its round, hard seedheads). bachelor’s button Irel., ladies’ balls Wilt., lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion Kent, hard-iron, hardine Staff., Ches., Lanc. w.Not., iron-weed Nhp., from its hard flowerhead; hurt-sickle Wor. (tough to cut), sweep Derby, War., shaving-brush Shrop., matfellon n.York. (OF mathfeloun, matefelon, French from Manche and Calvados departments marfoulon, madefenou, marfenou, marfran, morflon all appear to be borrowings from English), black-soap Devon, black knapweed (-), tarbottle Oxf., drumstick Nhp,. dromedary Wilt.

Centaurea scabiosa

hard-head Glouc., great horse-knobs York., bachelor’s button Glouc. (see Centaurea nigra).

Greater Knapweed

Centaurium erythraea

braddock e York., earth-gall w.Cy., bloodwort Shrop., gentian Suss., feverfew York., Ches. (see Tanacetum parthenium)

Common centaury

Centranthus ruber

Red Valerian

sweet-Mary Buck., sweet-betsy Kent, delicate-bess, bouncing-bess Devon, drunken-sailor Devon, drunken-willy w.Som., good-neighbours Wilt., w.Som., good-neighbours-hood Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., cat-bed n.Linc., American lilac Devon, German lilac, German laylock n. Linc., ground-laylocks n.Linc., roguery Som., fox’s bush Antrim, matrimony e.Kent, red valerian (-), scarlet-lightning Huntingdon, kiss-me, kiss-me-quick Wilt., Devon (?), lady-needlewort, ladies’ needlewort Wor. (?)

Cerastium fontanum

mouse-ear Scot., Lanark, York., Shrop., Devon, chicken-weed s.Cumb. (confusion with Common Chickweed)

Common Mouse-ear

Cerastium latifolium

silver-moss War.,

Wide-leaved Mouse-ear

Cerastium tomentosum

Dusty Miller

snow-in-harvest Leic., Wilt., w.Som., snow-on-the-mountain Som., seven-years-in-a-maze Devon, seven-years-in-a-mist Nhp., dusty-miller dusty-milner Linc., dusty-husband Ches.,

Ceterach officinarum

rustyback Cumb.


Ceterach officinarum

brown-back Devon


Chaenorhinum minus

jack-in-the-edge, jack-by-the-edge Berk. (hedge)

Small Toadflax

Chaerophyllum temulum

cow-mumble Suff., cherril York. sheep’s parsley Suff.

Rough Chervil

Chamaemelum nobile


camomine Scot., Lanc., Shrop., camoyine, camoine Scot., carmovine e.Lothian, camovine n.Scot., kamumein Shrop., margon, morgan Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight > app. 1.5.1

Chamaepericlymenum suecicum

honey-suckle n.York

Dwarf Cornel

Chamomilla recutita

devil’s apple-riennie Stirling, wild camels Devon, maithen w.Wor., n.Wilt. (see Anthemis cotula)

Scented Mayweed

Chelidonium majus

Greater Celandine

kill-wart n.Devon, wart-flower Devon, wart-weed Suff., wart-wort Glouc., Wilt., Shrop., Cumb., n.York., Derby, Ches., Devon, wart-grass Cumb., York., Glouc., Nrf., Suff., n.Essex, War., Linc., Derby, wret-weed Nrf. (“wart”), wart-weed Cumb., e.York., War., Glouc., Cambridge, Nrf., Suff., Wilt., n.Essex (attributed to Euphorbia which also has a latex, and to Gnaphalium uliginosum), yellow-spit Hamp., devil’s milk York., witches’ flower Som., saladine Cumb., York., Ches., salladin Cumb., sallender w.York. (French célidoine, from the scient. name Chelidonium, latinized form of Greek khelidon  app., 1.2.2; iodine s.Linc. (its sap stains hands like iodine), kenning-herb Devon, Corn., rit-weed Nrf., jacob’s ladder Shrop., saint-john’s wort s.Devon (Prob. Hypericum)

Chenopodium album

Fat Hen

dirt-weed Linc., e.Angl., Nrf., Sussex, dirty-dick, dirty-jack Ches., dirty-john w.Ches. (grows on dung-hills or heaps of dirt), bacon-weed Dorset “because it denotes rich and fat land”, fat-hen N.Cy., Nhb., Nrf., Cumb., York., Ches., Not., Linc., Leic., Hamp. (here attributed to Chrysanthemum segetum), Nhp., Hrf., Bdf., e.Anglia, Suff., Surrey, Sussex, lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue Ches., Shrop., w.Som., lamb-suckling n.Cy., lamb’s quarters Irel., n.Cy., I.Wight, mutton-chops Dorset (the young tops or shoots), also attributed to Galium aparine; john-o’neel, johnny-o’neel Shrop., goosefoot (transl. of Chenopodium), nightshade Kent (?)

Chenopodium album, Ch. bonus-henricus, Atriplex hortensis

midden-mylies n.Scot. (grows on middens or dunghills), miles Irel., Scot., Ayr., Lanark, Lothian, Rxb., Nhb., Cumb., mails Scot., meals, meols Cumb., milds N.Irel., meldweed Scot. (Norw. dial. melde, meldestock “Chenopodium album”, Shetl. melda “weeds”

goosefoot, orache, collective names

Chenopodium bonus-henricus

Good King Henry

wild spinach Midl., Bdf. (attributed to Ch. album), Hamp., I.Wight, fat-hen n.York., Ches., Berk., Suff., Kent., Surrey (see Chenopodium album), mercury n.Cy., Cumb., Westm., e.York., mercury-dock Renfrew, marquery Linc., margery Linc., shoemaker’s heel(s) Shrop., Radnor, cobbler’s head, cobbler’s head Flint, cobbler’s heel Flint, good-king-Harry, -Henri Nhb., Cumb., good-neighbours-hood Wilt., Roman-plant n.Lanc., flowery-docken Nhb. (?)

Chrysanthemum segetum

Corn Marigold

gold Midl., Not., sw.Linc., Nhp., Bdf., s.Cy., Scot., goold Scot., gould Hert., goud Not., sw.Linc., goul Wor., Buck., Bdf., Sussex, gole e.Anglia, Suff., Essex, gool Scot., Cumb., Not., Linc., Nhp., Wor., Buck., Bdf., Hert., e.Anglia, Sussex, goel e.Anglia, Suff., Essex, gowle, gull Cumb. guild(e), guile, gule Scot., gueel Aberdeen, geal-gowan, gilgowan Irel., gill-gowan n.Irel., Ulster, gowlan(d), gollan, golland goulan, gollin n.Cy., Nhb., n.York, Lanc., yellow-gold s.Cumb., yellow-gollan Caith., yellow-moon(s) War., Wor., Dorset, yellow-oxeye n.York., sun-flower Nhp.

marigold Irel., York., Ches., Shrop., Kent, marygold n.York., w.Ches., Kent, field-marigold Shrop., merrigo Kent, Mary-gowlan Nhb., marigoldins Antrim, wild marigold Antrim, corn-marigold Cumb. (for ma  app. 1.4), golden-pride Perth.

botham, bothem, bothan Corn., bozzom, yellow-bozzum I. Wight, bottan Hamp., billy-button York., botherum Ches., Dorset, botherem Dorset, budland Nrf., butter-daisy Dorset, yellow-bottle n.York., Kent, yellow bossle Berk., manelet Scot., thunder-daisy Som., Devon, measle-flower Wilt., tansy Glouc. (see Tanacetum vulgare) moon Nhp. (see Leucanthemum vulgare)  app. 2.11

Chrysanthemum sp.

winter daisy Devon “a small Chrysanthemum”, winter-geranium Devon

Chrysocoma linosyris

may-gowlin Westm.


Chrysoplenium oppositifolium

creeping-jenny Sussex

Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage

Cicer arietinum

caravanses, caravazas Kent (Spanish garbanzos)

Haricot bean

Cichorium intybus

bunks e.Anglia.


Cicuta virosa


hemlock Scot., Nhb., Dur., York., Ches., Not., Linc., e.Anglia, homleck, homlick, whumlick Nhb., humleek Nhb., sw.Linc., humlick n.Cy., Nhb., humly Rxb., humlock Scot., Frf., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., s.Not., Linc., e.Anglia, humblock s.Not., humloch, hummlock Rxb., humluck n.York. [OE hymlic, hemlic, hymlict(e)]; prob. a collective name for Umbelliferae; in Lanark “by the common people nearly all the Umbellate plants are called hemlock” (in Wright), hever Hrf.

Circaea lutetiana

dragon’s root Down (?)

Enchanter’s Nightshade

Cirsium arvense

Creeping Thistle

distel, deistle s.Pemb., disle Pemb., Som., Devon, Corn., dissel, diesel Corn., dysel, disell, dickle Devon, dicel, dishel Devon, Corn., dashel(l) Som., Devon, dashle w.Som., nw.Devon, dassel, dastel, dazzle Devon, thistle Scot., England, thizzle I.Wight, sissel Sussex, teasel (-) (Germ. distel).

pig-leaves n.Cy., York.  app. 2.9.1; hard-thistle e.Angl., corn-thistle Cumb., Antrim, creeping-thistle (on account of its rhizomes), cursed-thistle Staff., kuckles Irel. (its seedheads) > app. 2.3; wool Linc. (thistle down), plume-thistle (-), pixy Devon “down of thistles when floating in the air”, dodger Shrop.

Cirsium eriophorum

friar’s crown-thistle Glouc., pincushion War. (head of large thistle)

Woolly Thistle

Cirsium palustre

bog-thrissle Nhb., moss-thistle Gall., water-thistle Cumb., red-thistle York.

Marsh Thistle

Cirsium vulgare

Spear Thistle

bur-thistle Ayres., Cumb., York., nw.Derby, boar-thistle Ches., sw.Linc., Staff., Wor., Shrop., Berw., Hert., e.Anglia, Kent, Hamp., Som., boar-distle w.Som., bo-fissle Ches., bore-thistle Kent, bo-thistle Ches., bow-fistle Cumb., bull-thistle n.Irel., Dorset, w.Som., bell-thistle York., War., thistle-burr w.York. (thistle head), bird-thistle Wor. (for burr), thistle-top Dmf. (the downy head), horse-thristle Gall., quat-vessel Hamp. (also C. pratense), guckoo-buttons w.Som., cuckoo-buttons w.Som., n.Devon, cheese Dmf. (the receptacle)

Cistus ladanifer

day-flower n.Linc.

Crimson Spot Rockrose, Bog Cistus

Citrus aurantium

oranger Scot., origin Shetl.


Cladium mariscus

Great Fen-sedge

cut-grass, cut-sedge, cut-throat w.York. (also attributed to Glyceria maxima and Eriophorum angustifolium; Cladium is the plant with sharp leaves ), sword-gras Ches., Linc. “a coarse sedge”

Clematis vitalba

Traveller’s Joy

bithy-wine Wilt., Dorset, bellywind Hamp. (for “vine”), bethwine Glouc., Sussex, Hamp., bedwine Berk., Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, bedwind War., Glouc., Wilt. (to wind), by-the-wind Wilt., withywind, willow-wind, Glouc. (see Calystegia sepium), love, love-bind, bullbird, bethwin, bindwith (-), bull-bine Hert., Hamp. (see also Convolvulus), skipping-ropes Wilt.

climbers Kent, devil’s guts Wilt., devil’s cut Devon, hag-ropes Som., tuzzy-muzzy Glouc. (also “ragged, dishevelled; from the appearance of its inflorescence), lady’s bower Glouc., Virgin’s bower Irel., War., beggar-bushes Bucks.

grey-beard Wilt., Hamp., Devon, granfer’s-beard Wilt., old-man Devon, Sussex, dad’s whiskers Wilt., old man’s woozard s.Buck., old man’s beard Gall., Nhp., War., Glouc., Oxf., Buck., Hert., Huntingdon, Suff., Kent, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., old-man’s woozard s.Buck., silver-bush Jersey, snow-in-summer Wilt., snow-in-harvest Nhp., maid(‘s)-hair Buck., honey-stick, honesty Lakeland, w.York. War., Wor., Hrf., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, maiden’s honesty Wilt., hedge-feathers w.York., robinhood’s feather, -fetter Cumb.

traveller’s joy (so called because the traveller knows he is approaching a village when he sees the hedges covered with this plant).

smoking-cane Hert., Devon, smoke cane Devon, smoke weed (-), tombacca Suss. “tobacco”, boy’s-bacca Sussex. (“tobacco”, so called because boys cut the small wood pieces to smoke), crocodile Kent (see Ilex)

Cnicus benedictus

Virgin-Mary’s thistle Suff., Hamp. (see Milk Thistle)

Blessed Thistle, Thistle (Holy)

Cochlearia officinalis

scrooby-grass Scot., n.Cy., w.York, scurvy-grass, bad man(‘s) oatmeal Durham

Common Scurvy-grass

Cocos nucifera

monkey-nut e.Suff.


Colchicum autumnale

Autumn Crocus

wild crocus Dorset, meadow-crocus York., michaelmas-crocus Wilt., kite-leg e.Kent, naked-boy Hrf., Nrf., Wilt., star-naked boys Nrf. (the flowering plant has no leaves), ramson n.York. (by confusion, see Allium ursinum).

Conium maculatum


bad man(‘s) oatmeal Nhb., Durham, York., dead-man’s oatmeal Nhb., break-your-mothers’s-head Dorset, hech-how Scot. (N.Irel. ha-ho for Anthriscus sylvestris), bunk Nrf., Suff., koush Lanc., Linc. (see Umbelliferae)

Conopodium majus

kipper-nut Devon, gourlock Gall. (the root)


Consolida regalis

lark-heels Nhp. (prob. a transl. of French pied-d’alouette), jacob’s ladder Devon

Forking Larkspur

Convallaria majalis

Lily of the Valley

valley Buck., Bdf. (the leaves; on account of the channeled leaves; valley is also a small channel), lily-and-valleys Buck., Bdf., lily-of-the-valley (-), may-lily w.Som.

Convolvulus arvensis, Calystegia sepium

Bindweed, Larger Bindweed

bell-bind Cumb., Nrf., Essex, Suff., bell-wind Berw., Surrey, bind n.Linc., e.Anglia, bindweed Scot. (attributed to Senecio jacobae), n.Cy., York., Linc., Suff., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., Ches., Surrey, corn-bind, corn-bin(e) n.Cy., York., s.Not., Linc., Nhp., War., Oxf., Berw., corn-bindweed n.York., benweed Scot.: Ayr., N.Irel.: Donegal, bunwede (attributed to Senecio jacobae), beswin(d) Hamp., bethwine Glouc., Midl., Hamp., bearbind Hrf., Berw., Hert., York., Wor., Shrop., Kent, Midl., Surrey, bearbine Kent, Ches., Wor., Hrf., barbine Shrop., bedwine War., Glouc., Hamp., lily-bind w.York., wire-weed Surrey, willow-wind Wilt., way-wind Nhb. (winding), withwind (see Calystegia sepium)  app. 3.7; wheat-line Hert.

dralyer Corn. (also any trailing plant or weed) hell-weed York., hedge-bells I.Wight, hedge-lily Hamp., I.Wight, devil’s guts Nhp., s.Not., Linc., I.Wight, Bdf., Shrop., Leic., billy-clipper Shrop., old man’s nightcap Surrey, granny’s nightcap Wilt., lap-love Teviot, n.Cy.

Coriandrum sativum

col Essex, caxey Devon (see Umbelliferae, keckx)


Cornus sanguinea


cat-tree Shrop., cat-wood s.Buck., dog-tree Oxf., dog-wood War., Wilt., dog-timber w.Som., Dorset, Devon, gatteridge e.Anglia, Suff., s.Cy., gatter-tree Linc., Teviot, gatter-bush e.Anglia (see Rubus fruticosus and Euonymus europaeus), cornalee Ches. (French cornouiller), skewerwood Shrop., Hert., Buck. (see Euonymus europaeus), foul-rice Rutland

Coronopus squamatus

star-of-the-earth e.Sussex, hog-grass War., sow-grass n.York.,


Corydalis lutea

bird-in-a-bush Nhp., canary n.Linc., lady’s pincushion Devon, mother-of-thousands Devon

Yellow Corydalis

Corylus avellana


hazel Irel, Scot., Cumb., York., Lanc., Derby, Linc., Nhp., Buck., Essex, Devon (here attributed erron. to the hawthorn berry), hazel, hazl Devon (here attributed to Crataegus laevigata), hazle n.Cy., n.York., nw.Devon, hezel, hasle w.York., hazzel nw.Devon, n.Linc., heusel Essex, hezal n.Lanc., hezzel Cumb., Lanc., sw.Linc., hezzle Nhb., York., ne.Lanc. hizzel Cumb., hizzl Devon, hazzy-tree, azzy-tree Buck. (here attributed to Crataegus laevigata), halse Irel. Som., Devon, alls, alse Devon, hawlse Wexf., hall, hallnut Som., Corn., haul Som., nuthall, nuttal nuttall-bush, Devon, Corn., nuthall, nuthalse nw.Devon, nuttol se.Devon, e.Corn., alsen-wood Devon: Dartmoor, alsen-ood s.Devon, halse-bush, halse-nut Devon (halse-bush also attributed to Alnus glutinosa, and halse to Ulmus glabra)  app. 1.12

filbeard Ches., Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., I.Wight, filbeard se.Wor., Oxf. filberd Leic., Nhp., fillyard Shrop., vilburd I.Wight [(French noix de filbert, “a nut ripe about St Philibert’s day (20 August)” (Oxf. dict.)]

nut-tree Nhp., nuttery Suff., hedge-nuts Devon, wood-nut n.York., bong-nut Suff. (a long hazelnut), victor-nut Corn., cobble-de-cut-nuts Corn.

The catkins: lambkins Wilt., lamb-tails, lamb’s tails Nhb., Lakel., York., Not., Linc., War., Shrop., Buck., Cumb., Essex, Wilt., w.Som., Devon, Corn. (also of Salix caprea), cat-tail, cat’s-tails w.York., Nhp.,War., Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., w.Som., Devon, cats-and-kittens War., Wor., cat-o’nine-tails Devon, gallings Hert., rag, hazel-rag York., nut-rags Ches.

Cotyledon umbilicus


penny-cake(s) s.Pemb., s.Devon, Corn., pancake-plant Devon, penny-caps Som., penny-hat(s) Devon, Devon, penny-cod Corn., penny-grass Fermanagh, penny-pies Sussex, Devon, Corn., penny-plates Devon, penny-wall I.Man, money-pennies Devon, navel-wort n.York., Leic., Wor., lady’s navel w.Som., nipple-wort Sussex, maid-in-the-mist s. Scot., jack-in-the-bush Rxb., lovers’ links Rxb., prince’s feather w.York., corn-leaves Wor. (its leaves are applied to corns and warts), cut-finger w.War., bachelor’s button Devon, milk-the-cows Corn.

Crambe maritima

cole s.Cy., Sussex

Sea Kale

Crataegus laevigata

Midland Hawthorn

aag, aig, haag, haig w.York., ag Berk., Sussex, agg Buck., aga Kent, Hamp., Wilt., haga I.Wight, hagga Berk., aght Devon ague, hoeg Ches., heag w.York., Ches., haghe n.Cy., w.York., Derby, hague w.York., Lanc., Ches., haig n.York., Lanc., Ches., haw Selk., Dmf., haulm Kent; haw-berry Edinb., haw-buss Dmf., haw-gaw Surrey, haw-stones Gall. (the fruit), haw-tree Ayr., Lanark, Lothian, Dmf., Nhb., Glouc., hog-haws s.Cy., Hamp., hogawes Surrey, Sussex, aves Dorset, hoggan Corn., hog-gazels, hog-gosses Sussex, hogails, hogils I.Wight, haggil Hamp., haggle Ches., Hamp., I.Wight., Wilt., Dorset, Devon, Corn., hagal I.Wight, haggel, hagl, awgl, orgl Corn., aggle Devon, agle Ches., Corn., agald Wilt., haigle n.Devon, hayel, hail Dorset, eggle-berry, aggle-berry nw.Devon, eglet, agglet, aglet Devon, Corn., eaglet, heglet, heglut, eglet-blossom Devon, eagles, eggle-berry Ches., Devon, eggar w.Midl., aglet Dev., Cor., bird-eagles Ches., agogs Berk, agarves Sussex, agasses, hagasses Sussex, Hamp., hag-bush, hag-tree w.York., hag-thorn Som., Dev. hag(berry) n.Cy., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Berk., Buck., Hert., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Som., Devon, hag-blossoms w.York, Lanc. (French aigu “pointed”, Italian aguglia “needle” and haggle “to hack, mangle”, this bush being spiny).

pig-berry Wilt., pig-haw e.Cy., Hamp., Wilt., Som., pig-hau Hamp., peg-haw, peggal(l), peggle Wilt., pegall e.Cy., pigall e&w.Cy., Wilt., pigaul Hamp., pigs-hole Som.  app. 2.9.1; pitcher s.Pemb., pixy-pear Som., Dorset, peck-haw Not. From a roo pi- “pointed”  app. 2.9.2

thorn Scot., York., Lanc., thorn-berries, thorn-burs Ches., Nrf., quick-thorn York., Lanc., quick-wood n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., ne.Lanc., Ches., n.Linc., wicken n.York., holy-thorn War.

hip-haws Lakel., hippety-haw Shrop. (fruit), hippety-haw tree Shrop., heathenberry Ches., johnny-magory, johnny-macgorey Dublin, Wicklow, Wxf.  1.2.2.

cuckoo’s beads Shrop., cuckoo-tree Wilt., Sussex, ne.Kent, Leic., may-flower Cumb., may-fruits York., may-bread-and-cheese War. (leaves and buds), may-bush e.Anglia, Nrf., e.Suff., Hamp., w.Som., may-tree n.Linc., Nrf. may Lanark, w.York., War., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hert., e.Anglia, Nrf., Cumb., Suff., n.Essex, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Corn., may-bough Sussex, Hamp. (only the blossoms).

The berries: cat-haws N.Cy., Nhb., Nhp., Cumb., Durham, Cumb., Westm., York., Linc., kaat-auz e.York., katars w.York., kat-hos Westm., kato-o tree w.York. (the fruits), bull-haws n.Cy., Nhb. (the double-stoned fruit), bull-haa Nhb. (when of large size), butter-haws Nrf.

law e.Anglia, lawyer Ches., Hrf., Glouc. Brk., e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight, laayer Brk., layur I.Wight, lawer Nrf., layer e.Angl., Nrf., lay-yer Brk.

roddin n.Scot. (see Sorbus aucuparia), god’s meat w.York., cheese-and-bread Nhb., w.York. bread-and-cheese N Irel., Lakel., Oxf., Kent, England widespread (the budding leaves eaten by children), “whitethorn” is a translation of French aubépine thought to mean “white-spine” but in reality the name means “spine tree” (“arbe épine”; locally arbre is pronounced “arbe”). The spines of hawthorns are black. wind-bibber Kent (?) this is the name of the Kestrel!

Crepis paludosa

marsh-succory w.York., hawk’s-beard (-)

Marsh Hawk’s-beard

Crithmum maritimum

Rock Samphire

semper e.York., samper, sampur I.Wight, camphire Cumb. (misprint ?), samphire (also attributed to Salicornia europaea), > Saint-Pierre, rock-samphire, rock-semper York., Nhb. (here attributed to Salicornia herbacea), pasper Scot. (French perce-pierre)

Crocus sativus

saverney Nhb. (French saffrané)


Crocus vernus

naked-boy Ches. (see Colchicum autumnale)

Spring Crocus

Cruciata laevipes

cross-wort n.York., may-wort (-), maiden-hair Nhb.,


Cryptogramma crispa

rock-brake Nhb., parsley-fern Devon

Parsley Fern

Cucumis sativa var.


cumber York., Not., cowcunger Staff., conger Linc., Nhp., War., Wor., cunger Linc., War., congoe, conker Nhp. ð app. 2.4; cucumber-vine

Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo

pumpin Kent, pumpion Lanc., Kent,


Cucurbita sp.

squash Glouc. (not a variety of pear, but the pear-shaped squash; a name of Amerindian origin)




devil’s guts Cumb., Glouc., War., Shrop., Lanark, Sussex, n.Buck., Hamp., I.Wight, devil’s thread Kent, devil’s net w.Kent, hell-weed Nhp., Berk., Bdf., Hert., Cumb., Nhp., Lanark, n.Buck., Kent, Sussex, hell-bind, hell-seed Hert., red-tangle Nrf., hair-weed Bdf., Hert., Nrf., maid(‘s)-hair I.Wight, fairy-hair Jersey, scald Cumb., clover-dodder Hert. (for dodder see  app. 3.1), epiphany Corn. (from the scient. name of Cuscuta epithymum), beggar-weed Dorset, Bdf., Wilt.

Cyclamen purpurascens

bleeding-nun Wxf.,


Cydonum cotoneum

quincey Rutland, Devon


Cymbalaria muralis

Ivy-leaved Toadflax

creeping-jenny Devon, Dorset, Wilt., creeping-seefer Gall., roving-jenny I.Wight, Devon, wandering-jew n.Cy., Westm., Agl., Sussex, wandering-sailor Scot., Cumb., Som., Devon (creeps on walls), travelling-sailor Hamp., rambling-sailor Cumb., Lanc., mother-of-thousands Scot., n.Cy., Cumb., e.York., Ches., Derby, Wor., Kent, Wilt., Dorset, So., Devon, Corn., mother-of-millions Hert., e.Suss., Devon, Corn., thousand-flowers Ches., lavender-snip Hamp., Oxford-weed Oxf., Berk., pedlar’s basket Cumb., Westm., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Som., rabbit Devon, aaron’s beard Edinb. (a name attributed to several species)

Cynara scolymus

worry-baldie Gall. (appears to be a translation of (arti)choke “worry” !


Cynoglossum officinale

rose-noble Ches., Ulster  app. 2.2; gipsy-flower Glouc., scald-head Suff.,

Hound’s Tongue

Cynosurus cristatus

Crested Dog’s-tail

traneen(grass) Irel., thraneen Down, Donegal, Wexf., Kerry, trawneen, thrauneen n.Irel. (traneen is also a rush, straw or anything worthless), bent Cumb., s.Berw., bent-grass Cumb., s.Berw. (a collective name for grasses), kemp Caith. (kemps = coarse fibres; see also Plantago lanceolata), dog-tail grass Staff., Hert., Cumb., Suff., Suss., dog’s grass e.Anglia, w.York., Sussex, Hamp., golden-grass Lanark, scratch-grass Berk., wimble-straw Shrop., hendon-bent Midl., pipe-bent Selk. (?)

Cypripedium calceolus

calcalary Devon (from the scient. name), lady’s boots Devon, finger-and-thumbs, boots-and-shoes Devon, lady’s slipper Wilt., War.

Lady’s Slipper Orchid

Cyrtanthus speciosus

jersey-lily w.Som.,


Cytisus scoparius

green-broom Hert., besom Som., Devon (see Calluna vulgaris)


Daboecia cantabrica

french-heath w.Irel.

St Dabeoc’s Heath

Dactylis glomerata


cock’s foot, cock’s foot grass Scotland, n. York., Nrf., cock-spire Cumb., dog-foot Derby, fox-foot Nhb., cow’s grass Nrf., cow-grass e.Anglia, orchard-grass w.Som., orchis-grass Glouc., rough-girse Banff, sticky-grass se.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb. (?)

Dactylorhiza maialis

balderry, baldberry, bull-bags Scot., dodjell-reepan Gall., meadow-rocket Dmf.

Broad-leaved Marsh Orchid

Dactylorhiza sambucina,

Orchis mascula

Elder-flowered Orchid,

Early Purple Orchid

lord-and-ladies Lakel., York., Lanc. Ches., Staff., Derby, Linc., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Buck., Hert., Huntingdon, e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., e.Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, w.Som., Devon, Corn., lord-and-ladies-fingers War., ladies-and-gentlemen Nhp., Shrop., Kent, Wilt., gentlemen-and-ladies Oxf., gentlemen(‘s)-and-ladies’ fingers Wilt., lady-fingers Wilt., Kent., Glouc., lady-keys, lady-lords Kent, lady’s smock Hamp., adam-and-eve York., Linc., Leic., Som., kings-and-queens Dur., n.Linc.,  silly-lovers Som., devil’s ladies-and-gentlemen Denbigh, devil’s men-and-women Shrop., Suss. cows-and-calves Lakel., e.York., Not., n.Linc., sw.Linc., Nhp., War., s.Wor., Shrop., Buck., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, bulls-and-cows, n.Cy., Nhb., York., ne. Lanc., n.Linc., bulls-and-wheys Westm., n.York. cow-and-calf s.Not., Glouc., cows-and-kies n.York. stallions, stallions-and-mares York., Linc. There seems to have been considerable confusion in the attribution of orchids and cuckoo-pint’s names. Some of the preceeding names have been attributed to the Cuckoo-pint; they probably refer to the orchids, especially the Elder-flowered Orchid, on account of its flower spikes being either pink or yellow, both colour being found on the same location. See also Orchis mascula Early Purple Orchid.

Dactylorhiza maculata

Heath Spotted Orchid

scab-gowks Dur., nightcaps Derby, old-woman’s pincushion Wilt., poor man’s blood Kent, hen Nhb., ring-finger Buck., queen’s fingers War., spree-sprinkle Ches. (spree = “spreckled” speckled), skeat-legs Kent, kite-leg, kite’s leg Kent, kite-pan Wilt. (also Orchis mascula), dandy-goshen, dandy-goslings Wilt. (also O. morio), giddy-gander I.Wight, Dorset, goosey-gander Dorset, goosey-ganders Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., Dorset, gosling Wilt., gandigoslings, dandygoslings Wilt. (also for Orchis mascula)

Daphne laureola

Spurge Laurel

wood-laurel Glouc., Buck., Hamp., I.Wight, laurel-wood Glouc., spurging-laurel Nhb., spurge-laurel (-), fox-poison Linc.,

Daphne mezereum


mazalium Buck., mazell Hamp., mezereon Ches., mysterious-plant Derby (perhaps a corruption of mezereon), paradise-plant Glouc., Som., red-berry laurel w.York., daffany Devon (from the scient. name), daffodil York. (by contamination of Daphne), spurge-flax (-)

Daucus carota

Wild Carrot

mirrot Sutherland, Ross., mirran, meeran Scot.: Aberd., Buchan (Sw. morot “carrot”, Dan. morod “wild carrot), bird’s nest York., Wilt., Scotland, War. (the inflorescence), crow’s nest Bdf., curran-petris w.Scot., keggas, kegge, kai-yer Corn. (see Umbelliferae: kecks), fiddle n.Linc. (see Scrophularia auriculata)

Delphinium elatum

devil’s nightcap Hamp.

Candle Larkspur

Dendrathema (cultivated hybrids)

farewell-summer Wales, kiss-antrum Devon (corruption of Chrysanthemum), mums


Deschampsia cespitosa

Tufted Hair-grass

buff-fronts Nhb., n.Cy., bull-front Cumb., bull’s forehead n.Cy., e.York., Som., w.York., bull’s brows Som., bull-poll Glouc., Wilt., bull-pates Shrop., Herf., Glouc., bull-peats Nub., s.Wor., Glouc., bull-tussock Derby  app. 2.1, bent-grass, benton pry sw.Cumb., hassocks Ches. (see Carex), spear-grass Suff., spink Scot., Fife, Edinb., Nhb., nation-grass Wilt. (a noxious weed, tough to mow; nation is an expletive), iron-grass Shrop. sniggle, sniggle-grass, sniggle-bogs Shrop., snizzle appears to be a misreading (attributed to Eriophorum vaginatum with the precision “the caespitose root-leaves”), carnation-grass Glouc. (see Carex)

Dianthus barbatus

Sweet William

sweet-willy Scot., Kent, tuffy n.Linc., lady’s tuft e&w.York., bloomy-down Som., London-pride e.York., Nhp., London-tuft n.Linc., Nhp., Nrf., Suff., London-bobs Lakel., Lanc.,

Dianthus caryophyllus

Clove Pink

gillofer Shrop., Glouc., gil’offer Devon, jillofer, gilawfer w.Som., jilloffer Dorset, gilafer Nhp., gillafer I.Wight, jillafer Devon, gillifer n.York., Som., gilliver Scot., Cumb., n&w.York., Lanc., Ches., Staff., Flint, Derby, Not., sw.Linc., Leic., War., gillyfer York., Nhp., gillyver Nhp., jilliver York., Lanc., sweet-gilliver York., Staff., gillyvor s.Ches., gilver I.Man, gillyflower England, Scot., gillieflower Glouc., Som., gillyflower-grass, julyflower-grass Wilt. jilliflower Dorset, jillyflower se.Wor., gilliflower Lanark, w.York., Ches., Staff., Berk., Som., gillivlower Som., gellyflower Scot., jellyflower Ayr., Devon, Corn., gilloflower Dur., also attributed to other species (OF gilofre). The forms ending in -flower are due to pop. etym.  (Wright)

whitsun-gilliflower Som., may-pink Devon, pinkie Scot., Rnf., Lanark, pitman’s pink n.Cy., french-pink w.Som., indian-pink Glouc. (from its usual colour, not from pinken “prick”, this plant is not spiny or prickly), clow(e) Rnf., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. [French clou (de girofle)] clove-gilawfer Som., clove-pink (-), ley Lanc., crownation Sussex, Devon, carnation

Dianthus chinensis

indian-pink Som., Devon

Chinese Pink

Dianthus deltoides

wild pink n.Cy, Nhb., Berk., s.Scot.

Maiden Pink

Dianthus gratianopolitanus

cliff-pink Som.

Cheddar Pink

Dicentra spectabilis

Bleeding Heart

sweet-betsies w.Som., dutchman’s breeches Devon, locks-and-keysWilt., loak’s-n-kaiz w.Som., bleeding-heart Westm., w.Wor. Glouc., love-lies-bleeding deutsa, diletrus, dialetrus Devon, seal-flower (-), rabbit’s flower Wilt., duck’s bill w.Som., Devon

Digitalis purpurea


flop nw.Devon, flop-poppy, flop-top Devon, flop-a-dock Wilt., Devon, fropadock, flop-dock Devon, flobber-dock Devon, flop-docken n.York., goose-flops Devon, goosey-vlops War., Devon, cow-flop w.Som.

cow-pops, green-poppies Corn., pop-dock Som., Corn., pop-glove Corn., poppers Hamp., peppes Devon, poppy, popy-docks York., Nhp., War., Buck., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn.

fox-and-leaves Donegal, foxter-leaves Selk., fox-docken n.York., fox-fingers n&e.York., fox-glove w.York., white foxglove Lanc., folk’s glove Nhb., Wilt., foxes’ gloves Oxf., fairy-petticoats Ches., fairy-cap Irel., fairy-fingers Dur., Cumb., n.York, Fermanagh, fairy-glove Irel., lady’s glove Shrop., fairy-weed Irel.

finger w.Som., lady-fingers Antrim, w.Som., Shrop., Wor., Nhb., Devon, lady-fingers e.Cy., Lanark, Rutland, Linc., York., Dorset, Hert., Nhp., Linc., e.Lanc., e&w.York., Hamp., Wilt., Sussex, Huntingdon, lady-finger grass Hert., fingers-and-thumbs, god’s fingers-and-thumb, yellow fingers-and-thumbs Dorset (also attributed to Fumaria officinalis, Lotus corniculatus and other flowers), lady’s glove Nhp., Wilt., king’s finger Buck., king’s finger grass Midl., devil’s fingers Som., devil’s five-fingers Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, dead-man’s fingers Hamp., finger-and-toe Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, finger-and-thumbs Wilt. Rutl., Oxf., Hert., Hamp., Dorset, Devon, yellow fingers-and-thumbs Som., ladies fingers-and-thumbs Wilt., god’s fingers-and-thumbs Dorset, god’s thumbs-and-fingers Hamp., lady’s-boots Devon, lady’s shoes Hamp., boots-and-shoes Sussex, Devon, shoe-and-sock e.Kent, shoes-and-stockings Buck., s.Cy., Sussex, Hamp., Devon, stockings-and-shoes Devon, lady’s shoes-and-stockings Buck., Kent, cuckoo’s stockings Shrop., Sussex, lady’s slipper Wilt., Hert., w.York., grandmother’s slippers Hamp., grandmother’s nightcap Sussex, granny’s nightcap Buck.  (some of the preceeding names probably apply to the Lady’s Slipper  Orchid of which they are descriptive).

finger-root Sussex, finger-stall War., thimble Waterford, lady’s thimble Nrf., Nhb., witch(‘s) thimble s.Scot., Ayr., Twd., Dmf., Nhb., n.Cy. (here attributed to Centaurea cyanus),

hair-bell Irel. (for hare-) rabbit’s flower Devon, dragon’s mouth, lion’s mouth, tiger’s mouth Sussex, cowslip Devon, cooslop n.Linc. (= cow’s lip), snoxun Glouc., rapper Pembroke, long-purple w.Som., floss-docken Ork., kiss-me-quick-and-go Som., pounds-of-sugar Shrop. “the seeds”, snap-dragon Devon, snauper Glouc.

Dioscora spp.


yam Scot., Edinb., yaam Shetl. (attributed to “potato”)

Diplotaxis muralis

wall-rocket (-), stink-weed Kent

Annual Wall Rocket

Dipsacus fullonum

Wild Teasel

brushes, clothes-brush Linc., Wilt., comb-and-brush Wilt., clothier’ brush Cumb: Langwathby, brush-and-comb, barber’s brush Wilt. (from its prickly heads), gipsy’s-combs York., sweep’s-brushes Shrop., Devon, sweep w.York., Shrop. chimney-sweeps Lanc., Ches., s.Not. (the last three also attributed to Luzula), buy-a-broom Ches., adam’s flannel Leic., devil’s mint e.Suff. (?)

Drosera rotundifolia

Common Sundew

red-rot Edinb., n.Cy., youth-wort Edinb., moor-gloom w.York., moor-grass Cumb., York., king-of-the-wood Antrim (?) (this species does not grow in woods)

Dryas octopetala

wild betony Clare

Mountain Aven

Dryopteris cristata

darsham-fern Nrf.

Crested Buckler Fern

Dryopteris filix-mas

Male Fern

Saint-John’s hands Rutland, fern-brackins Cumb., basket-fern Hamp., Corn., mekkin Lakel., Cumb., Westm. ? (see Iris pseudacorus), snake’s ladder Leic.

Echium vulgare

Viper’s Bugloss

blue-bottle Nrf., iron-weed Bdf., -tail Hert., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, wild borage, wild borage-root Surr., snake-flower I.Wight, viper’s grass I.Wight (French vipérine), bugles Hamp.

Elatine alsinastrum

thyme-weed Linc. (prob. a name for Elodea canadensis)


Eleocharis palustris

water-seave w.York., paint-brush Wilt., Dorset,

Common Spike-rush

Elitrygia repens

Common Couch

couch(grass) England (widespread), York., Ches., Derby, War., Glouc., Berw., Bedf., Suff., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Wilt. (also applied to other grasses), cooch Derby., Glouc., Kent, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, kootch Devon, cough-grass Irel., scoutch Hrf., scutch Irel., Ches., War., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., Oxf., skutch Ches., Oxf., quitch, quitch-grass Irel., Not., Leic., Nhp., War., Glamorgan, Glouc., Oxf., e.Anglia, Som., quitch, squitch, squitch-grass Ches., Staff., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War.., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Buck., Irel., scuitch Shrop., squatch s.Ches., switch, w.York., twike, twyke Linc., twitch, twitch-grass Lakel., Cumb., Westm., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Midl., Derby, Not., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Bdf., Hert., e.Anglia, Cumb., Suff., Essex, Som. quick n.Cy., Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., n.Linc., n.Lanc., Wor., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., quicken, quicken-grass N.Irel., Scot., Aberd., Perth., Dmf., Gall., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., York., War., ket s.Scot. (E.Fries. kwäck, Germ. quecke, Germ: Pfalz quack, Dutch kweek, AS cwice (ketty = matted, bound together, to couch = to lie down; also attributed to other grasses)

strap-grass Devon, sproil Devon (so called in consequence of the creeping nature of its root – Wright), huff-cap Hrf., Som. (also: a mound of coarse grass), spear-grass e.Angl., Suff., spear-bed e.Anglia, Suff., Corn., dog’s grass Cumb., dog-grass Ches., fanny-grass Nhb, whigga Shetl., yawl Scilly I., windle-straw Scot. (also Cynosurus cristatus); windle is a long stalk of gras or corn; wreck Scot., m.Loth., Rxb., Nhb. (also anything worthless; see wrack sea alga); scrile w.Cy., scoil Corn., skally-grass Irel., lonnachs, nonachies Scot., felt Scot., wild bennet Hert. (= bent), sheep’s sowruck Scot., gye Lanc., Suff. (see Ranunculus arvensis), white couch Wilt. = prob. Holcus lanatus

Elodea canadensis

Canadian Pondweed

cat-tail Fermanagh, water-thyme York., War., Oxf., Berk., Cumb., Linc., guanner-weed n.Linc. (believed to have been imported with guano), American weed, A. waterweed Linc., Glouc.

Elymus caninus

madge-moneylegs York. (“many legs”, from its numerous creeping roots)

Bearded Couch

Elymus farctus

bent, bentle Suff.

Sand Couch

Empetrum nigrum


crow-berry Scot., Nhb., York., crawberry Gall., crow-ling w.York., crake-berries n.Cy., York., Nhb., craw-croop, craw-croup, craw-crook Scot., Perth., Lothian, craw-croobs w.Perth

berry-heather Shetl., Caith, blackberry Caith., black-ling n.York., wireling n.York., wire-weed Nrf., Suff., Kent., I.Wight, monnocs, monnox, monnocs-heather Antrim, moonog Irel., Scot. (Gaelic Irel. moineog “a bog berry”, from móin “a bog, a moor”), crane w.York. (see Vaccinium oxycoccum), knauperts Banff, groose-berries Cumb., heath Derby

Epilobium angustifolium

Rosebay Willowherb

french-saugh Lanark, french-willow Cumb., Lanc., Lanark, War., blood-vine Hamp. eyebright Devon, cat’s eyes (-)

Epilobium hirsutum

Greater Willowherb

codlins Cumb., York., Nhp., Glouc., Oxf., Suff., Devon, sugar-codlins Wilt., codlin(g)s-and-cream Cumb., York., Ches., Staff., Nhp., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Surrey, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, Devon, raspberries-and-cream I.Wight (attributed to Eupatorium), codlin-apple (-), coddled-apple w.York., Linc., Nhp., War., cat-head ches., n.Linc., Midl., Hamp., w.Som., love-apple War., kezzick, keswick-apple York., Ches., apple-pie York., Ches., Glouc., Hert., Suff., Essex, cherry-pie s.Not., Wor., Dorset, corran-dumpling, apple-dumplin Nhb., sod-apple Wilt., custard-cups Shrop., plum-pudding Ches. gooseberry-pie Suff., gooseberry-pudding Sussex, I.Wight (the preceding names normally apply to edible plants; it is not known why they are given to this species), wild willow s.Cy., Wilt., blooming sally N.Irel., Donegal (= prob. Lythrum salicaria), wild flox Devon, fiddle-grass York.

Epipactis atrorubens

red-shank w.York.,

Dark Red Helleborine

Epipactis palustris

marsh-helleborine Hamp.

Marsh Helleborine

Equisetum arvense

bottle-brush Surrey, Scot., Nhb., Durham, frog fir-tree Westm., feather Oxf.

Field Horsetail

Equisetum fluviatile

Water Horsetail

pool-pipes Westm., frog-pipes w.York. (attributed to E. arvense), padda-pipe Nhb., s.Scot., York., n.Cy., paddock’s pipe Scot., Lanark, Rxb., Gall., Nhb., Cumb. (padda = frog) (names also attributed erroneously to Hippuris), water-grass War.

Equisetum hyemale

Rough Horsetail

scrub-grass Cumb. (its rough stems are used for scrubbing or polishing fire-irons, or scouring dishes”, bottle-brush w.York., Hamp., duck rush (-), rough horsetail

Equisetum palustre

marsh-weed Devon

Marsh Horsetail

Equisetum telmateia

asparagus Glouc.

Great Horsetail

Equisetum telmateia, Equisetum arvense

horse-pipe N.Irel., Antrim, Staff., horse-piping n.York., snake-pipes Cumb., Nrf., Essex., Som.

Great Horsetail, Field Horsetail

Equisetum, collective names

Horsetails, collective names

johnny-grass War., Wor., Sussex, johnny-weed w.Som. Hert., old-man’s beard w.Som., Glouc., cat-rushes Ches., cat-whistles Suff., mare’s tail (-), colt’s tail Suff., Devon

Equisetum arvense

Field Horsetail

cat-tail Ches., War., Glouc., Berk., s.Berw., Midl., Suff., Kent, Hamp. Wilt., colt’s tail Suff., Devon, fox-tail Glouc., prince-of-Wales feather Suff.

Eranthis hyemalis

peeping-februaries Wor., new-year’s gift Essex (blooms very early)

Winter Aconite

Erica cinerea

Bell Heather

bell-heath, bell-heather Hamp., honey-bottle Wilt., bell-ling n.York., crow-ling e&n.York., wireling ne.York., carlin-heather Scot., black-heath Hamp., feather-of-heath n.York., she-heather Nhb., bent Ches. (a collective name for grasses)

Erica vagans

kekezza Corn.: Lizard dist.

Cornish Heath

Erica, Calluna


heath Scot., Cumb., York., Lanc., Staff., Derby, Nhp., Buck., Hamp., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., heth Hamp., Dorset, yeth Lanc., w.Som., Devon, yirth Lanc., heather Irel., Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., Ches., Linc., Hamp., hether Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., eather Perth, hather n.Cy., Nhb., n.Linc. (see Plant life)

Erigeron acer

flea-bane n.Linc.

Blue Fleabane

Eriophorum angustifolium, E. latifolium, E. vaginatum

moss-crop Scot., Edinb., Roxb., Cumb., Westm., Nhb., w.York., Lanc., nw.Devon, moss-crops-and-cutthroats w.York., moss-silk York., moss Rxb., Nhb., Dur., moor-palm York., ghost-grass w.York., wild cotton n.Scot., cotton-grass n.Linc., pussy Dorset  app. 3.9, floss-seave Ork., flowan Antrim, Down, cat-locks Cumb., cat-tail Aberdeen, Kircud., white cat’s-tail Cumb., mare’s tail rush (-), hare’s foot w.York., hare’s tail (-), ling Nhb., Dur., silky-ling Nhb., pull-ling Scot.: Tweeddale, draw-moss Gall., canna, cannach Scot., canna-down Angus [Gaelic canna(ch)]

Common Cotton-sedge, Broad-leaved Cotton-sedge, Hare’s-tail Cotton-sedge

Erodium cicutarium

wild musk Bdf., five-leaved grass Hamp.

Common Stork’s-bill

Erodium moschatum

picle-needle, muscovy Devon

Musk Stork’s-bill

Erophila verna

fellon Banff.

Whitlow Grass

Eruca sativa

rocket (<Fr. roquette)


Eryngium campestre

hundred-thistle, dane-weed Nhp.  app. 1.6

Field Eryngo

Eryngium maritinum

sea-holm Corn.

Sea Holly

Erysimum cheirantoides

heart’s ease Corn. (see pansy), terrify Linc., treacle-mustard (-)


Erysimum cheiri


bleeding-heart s.Wor., Glouc., Berk., Wilt., blood-wall Ches., Nhp., bloody-wall Som., warrior, bloody-warrior Som., churl Wor., Shrop., bee-flower Linc., winter gilly-flower Ches., whitsun-gilliflower Som., sweet-william e.Linc., french-wall-flo’er sw.Scot., mignonette (-), hand-flower w.York. (a transl. of cheiri)

Euonymus europaeus


gatteridge, gattridge e.Angl., e&s.Cy., Kent, Suff., gottridge Suff., gatter-bree Kent, cat-tree Berw., catty-tree Shrop., skewerwood n.York., Glouc., Berk., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, s.Devon (used to make skewer for butcher’s), dog-tooth berry Surr., dog-tree War., spindle-tree (-), spindle-wood Glouc., witchwood Suff. (see Ulmus glabra), alder Berw. (?), death-alder n.Buck. (?), foul-rush (?) Buck.

Eupatorium cannabinum

andurion Lanc.: Ormskirk, fillaira N.Irel., water-agrimony Ches.


Euphorbia amygdaloides

mare’s tail Donegal

Wood Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias

clip-me-dick Lanc., Ches., kiss-dick Ches.,

Cypress Spurge

Euphorbia helioscopa

Sun Spurge

wet-weed, wret-weed Nrf., irby-dale grass Linc., sun-spurge (-) (French épurge), saturday-papper, saturday-night’s pepper Wilt., seven-sisters Donegal, little-good Scot., Lanark, e.Lothian, devil’s apple-tree Clackmannan (?); see also Euphorbia, collective names

Euphorbia hyberna

makkin-bwee, makin-boy Irel.

Irish Spurge

Euphorbia lathyrus

caper, caper-bush e.York., War., e.Anglia., Nrf., Suff.

Caper Spurge

Euphorbia peplis

milk-wort Wilt., petty spurge (-)

Purple Spurge

Euphorbia, collective names

Spurge, collective names

milk-weed Hert., e.Anglia, Essex, milk-wort Essex, milk-ort n.Scot., milk-flower Wilt., milk-sile York. milk-maid n.Linc., Sussex, n.York. (attributed to Calystegia sepium), milk-maiden(s) w.York., Midl., Essex., Wilt., Devon, milk-girl Devon, mouse-milk n.York., mamma’s milk s.Buck., cat’s milk Wor., devil’s milk s.Wor., mad-woman’s milk s.Buck., deer’s milk Hamp., witch’s milk Lanc. (err. attributed to “Hippuris”), devil’s milk Gall.

Euphrasia rostkoviana

eyebright n.York., Ches., w.Ches., Devon shop-eyebright Lanark (transl. of scient. name)

Common Eyebright

Faba vulgaris

tick Hert., Wilt., Som. (a variety), horse-bean (-)


Fagopyron esculentum


buck Hert., e.Anglia, buckwheat War. (Germ. buchweizen), (not “from the resemblance of its seeds to the mast of the beech-tree” – they do not resemble; buck is also found in other plant names: buckeye, buckthorn), crap Wor., Sussex, brank York., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., Essex, french-wheat Staff., Shrop., Hert., Corn., crap Wor., fat-hen n.Buck. (see Chenopodium album)

Fagopyrum tataricum

tartary-oat, tartarian

Tartary Buckwheat

Fagus sylvatica

beech (Dutch beuk, boek, Sw. bok, Dan. bøk, bog), mast (the nut)


Fallopia aubertii

bindweed Cumb. Ches., e.Anglia

Russian Vine

Fallopia convolvulus

Black Bindweed

bindweed Cumb. Ches., e.Anglia, bearbind Staff., bethwine Hamp., hay-gob War., hay-cruiks (-) “because it mats other herbs together twisting around them”, hay-maiden Cumb., Glouc., Dorset, Devon, tether-devil, devil’s tether Ches. (tether is a tangle, as of weeds – Wright), spade Nhb., goat’s weed Wilt., clip-me-dick Ches., wild hop Ches., lap-love Scot., n.Cy., Midl., dother Ches. (a name attributed to several species; see Briza, Spergula arvensis)

Ferula narthex

devil’s dung Scot., w.York., n.Lonc., Suff. (from its stench)


Festuca ovina

black-twitch Cumb., Midl., Bedf., sheep’s-bent w.York., sheep’s fescue Nhb.

Sheep’s Fescue

Festuca pratensis

frisky Suff.

Meadow Fescue

Festuca sp.

goat’s tail n.York.

Fescue sp.

Ficus carica


fig England, Ireland, fag Lanc., feg Nhb., Dur., Westm., Glouc., Wilt., Som., vig Merk, Wilt., Som. (also raisin, dried fruit in general), turkey-fig Devon

Filago vulgaris

Common Cudweed

chafeweed Nhb. (see Plant parts, chaffery), old-owl w.Suff., down-weed (-), clodweed s.Buck. (also Knautia arvensis), owl’s crown Nrf., cudwort (-), hens-and-chickens w.York.

Filipendula ulmaria


king-of-the-meadow Shrop., queen-of-the-meadow Scot., Caith., Edinb., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., n.Linc., War., Devon, meadow-queen Rnf., Perth., maid-of-the-meadow Ches., may-of-the-meadow War., meadow-maid s.Pemb., lady-of-the-meadow Gall., lady’s ruffles Wilt., meadow-sweet Nhp., meadow-soot Wilt. (for “sweet”), sweet-hay Sussex, honey-sweet Som. (sweet scent), mednart Scot., courtship-and-matrimony Cumb., Oxf., lemp Devon, dropwort(-)

Foeniculum vulgare


finkle n.Cy., York., Linc., Kent, finkel n.Cy., w.York. (from “foeniculum”), spingel, spignel Som.

Fragaria vesca

hedge-strawberry Devon

Wild Strawberry

Fragaria, cultivar

strawberry-wires Shrop. (the runners), red carolina Hrf. (a variety)


Francoa sonchifolia

bridal-wreath w.Som.

Bridal Wreath

Frangula alnus

dog-wood Hamp., stinking-roger Ches., black-aller nw.Devon, Corn., gunpowder-wood Surr., black alder

Alder Buckthorn

Fraxinus excelsior


ash Scot., Irel., Engl., esh Nhb., York. eisch Lanc. (Germ. esche, Sw. ask, Dan. asktræ), even-ash, even-leaf ash Nhb., w.Shrop., Wilt., nw.Devon, N.Irel. (the leaves)

The winged seed vessels: cat-keys n.York., Hert., kitty-keis ne.York, cat’s and eyes ne.York., cats-and-keys Devon, cattikeyns Wilt., catty-keys Durham, cat-and-kittlings Linc., Nhp., cat-i’keys Durham, kit-keys Berk., culverkeys Kent, locks-and-keys s.Not., n.Linc., Surrey., se.Wor., Oxf., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex., w.Som., Devon, ash-key Engl., shackles Devon, see Rhinanthus

Fritillaria imperialis

crow-imperial Devon

Crown Imperial

Fritillaria meleagris

Snakeshead Lily

death-bell Cumb., dead-man’s bells Shrop. doleful-bells-of-sorrow Oxf. (from the dingy colour of its flower), crow-cup Buck., crow-flower Wilt., Devon (dark flower), malfalaries w.York., drooping-tulip Devon, Lazarus-bell Devon, frits Berk. (short for Fritillaria), guinea-hen, guinea-hen flower Cumb., leopard-lily Devon, turkey-eggs Berk., pheasant-lily Cumb., wild tulip Nhp., War., cowslip Hamp., cowslop Ches., Nhp., Shrop., e.Anglia, n.Devon (= cow’s lip), snake’s head Hert., Berk., Oxf., Midl., Surrey, I.Wight, snake’s head lily Oxf., Buck.

Fuchsia cultivars


drop Nhb., dropper, tropper-tree Som., Corn., lady’s eardrop Sussex., w.Som., Devon, drops of Abel’s blood Durham

Fumaria officinalis

Common Fumitory

earth-smoke n.Cy., w.York., hemitory Kent, fevertory Wilt., beggary e.Anglia, dicky-birds Wilt., lady’s shoe Wilt., snap-dragon Nhp. (?)

Galanthus nivalis

snow-drop Hamp., snow-dropper Glouc., s.Buck., fair-maids Nrf., s.Hamp.


Galeopsis speciosa

bee-nettle Ches.

Large-flowered Hemp-nettle

Galeopsis tetrahit

Common Hemp-nettle

dead-nettle n.Cy., Nhb., n.York., Nhp., dea-, dee- dea-, dae-, deea-nettle Nhp, Nhb., Cumb., deaf-nettle Corn., blind-nettle Shrop., Oxf., nw.Devon, female-hems Linc., wild mint Devon

Galium aparine


cliders Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Som., Dorset, Devon, Corn., clyder(s) Hamp., Wilt., Devon, Corn., clythers Corn., claiton, cleeiton, clydern Dorset, cliden Devon, clidden, claden, cly Som., cly-burs w.Som., clite Pemb., Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., Dorset, clyte Wilt., clit Dorset, clitt Pemb., clite Glouc. (the seeds, from their cleaving to anything)

cleggers n.York., cling-rascal Devon, cleavers Nhb., Cumb., York., Linc., Glouc., e.Anglia, Wilt., Corn., Clavers n.Cy., Nhb., claver-grass, clavver-grass Cumb., clevers e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. (German kleber, from kleben “to cleave”)

goose-cleavers Lanark, goose-grass n.York., Cumb., n.Cy., Lanark, w.York., Ches., Glouc., Nrf., Suff., Devon, goose-tongue Ches., gosling-grass Nhp., Oxf., gosling-scrotch Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, pigtail, gosling pigtail Nhp.

stick-a-back Cumb., Lanc., Ches., sticky-back Cumb., stickleback Ches, sticky-grass sw.Cumb (for “Galium mollugo”), hook-a-back, huggaback Cumb., hug-me-close Dorset

scrat Nhp., sweet-hearts e.York., Oxf., Wilt., Devon “because its buss have such an affectionate way of clinging to one”

hairif England, harif(f) n.Cy., York., Not., sw.Linc., Glouc., hariffe Shrop., harift sw.Linc., War., Wor., Radnor, Devon, heyriff(e) Nhp., heiriffe, herif(f) Ches., Midl., Staff., War., Hamp., herrif Not., eerif s.Ches. eriff, erith s.Wor., errif(f) Ches., Staff., Not., Rutland, Leic., airif Linc., aireve Midl., haireve Glouc., hairup e.York., harrup, airup York., hairough e.York., Midl., Leic., hairrough n.York., airess, aress w.York. (OE hegerife); hairif also attributed to Filipendula ulmaria.

scratch-grass Hert., scratch-weed n.York., Nhb., Devon, grip-grass Nhb., snares w.York.

catch-grass Ches., Scot., catch-weed York., Lanc., catch-rogue Scot.

beggar-weed Nhp., Bdf., beggar-lice Nhp., Glouc., Hamp., harvest-lice Hamp., gentleman’s tormentors Suff.

bur-head Nhp., bur-weed Nhp., Buck., Hert., pin-burr Bdf., popple Linc. (the seed; popple (also pebble, cobble), kandle-gostes, kandlegosses Ches., tongue-bleed(er), tongue-bluiders s&n.Cy., Nhb., York., Leic., Nrf., Suff., blood-tongue Scot., Ches.

robin-run-a-hedge, robin-run-(in)-the hedge N.Irel., Dublin, Scot., Lanc., Rxb., Dmf., Gall., s.Cumb., n.Lanc., War., e.Anglia, robin-run-the-hedge Nhb., Devon, rob-run-i’ hedge, rabbie-rinnie-hedge, robin-round-the-hedge Ayr., lizzy-run-the-hedge Nhb., willy-run-hedge Sterling, jack-at-the-edge Donegal, robin-run-(in)-the-dyke Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., rob-run-up (the) dyke Cumb., jack-run-the-dyke Nhb.

gye e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. (see Ranunculus arvensis), gull-grass Glouc., lakoo Shetl., soldier(‘s) buttons, soldiers’ buttons Cumb., tether-grass Nhb., scurvy-grass w.York. (?), traveller’s comfort, traveller’s ease Wilt. (?)

Galium odoratum


scent-hairhoof n&e York., sweet-hairhoof n&e.York., kist-weed Banff, star-grass Nhb., Cumb., hay-plant Londonderry, new-mown hay Not., rock-wood Devon, woodrip Scot., Aberd., woodiy-ruffee n.York., War., woodruff, sweet woodruff (-), madder Wilt.

Galium saxatile

rock-straw w.York.

Heath Bedstraw

Galium verum

Lady’s Bedstraw

straw-bed Devon, lady’s bedstraw, ladies’ bedstraw York., Not., Glouc., Wilt., Devon (also Galium saxatile and G. cruciata), ladies’ golden-bedstraw n.York., rennet Cumb., Hert., Kent., runnet Kent, cheese-rennet Cumb., War., Don., cheese-renning Ches., cheese-running Ches., s.Cy., flea-weed Suff., hundred-fad Nhb., johnny-grass n.Cy., Midl., maid(‘s)-hair n.Cy., broom Shrop. (see Bramble), robin-run-a-hedge Lanc., w.York.

Genista anglica

Needle Furze

carlin-spurs Scot., cat-whin Cumb., York., petty-whin Scot., York., Ches. (on account of its thorns; = pettish; pet = temper), needle-whin n.York., needle-furze (-), heather-whin Nhb. moor-whin Nhb., moss-whin Nhb., jennet  app. 1.2.1

Gentiana verna

spring-violet Durham

Spring Gentian

Geranium lucidum

bachelor’s button Lanc., robin Devon

Shiny Crane’s-bill

Geranium molle

star-lights s.Buck., mother-of-millions w.York.

Dove’s-foot Crane’s-bill

Geranium phaeum

mournful-widow York., Lanc.

Dusky Crane’s Bill

Geranium pratense

loving-Andrew(s) Wilt.

Meadow Crane’s Bill

Geranium robertianum

Herb Robert

red-weed Ches., red-shank w.York., red-bird’s eye Oxf., red bobby’s eye Hamp., Wilt., small robin’s eye Glouc., red-breasts Nhp. (by attraction of the bird name Robin redbreast), robert, robert’s bill, robin(‘s)flower, robinhood Devon, robin’s eye Suff., Wilt., Devon, robin-redshanks n.York., robin-redbreast Nhp., robin-ith-hedge n.York., little-robin Kent, Devon, little-john-robin-hood, Dorset, red-robin s.Pemb., Hert., Cumb, Nrf., Essex, round-robin Devon, ragged-robin Buck., rubwort Ches., bloodwort Cumb., Ches., bloody-crane’s bill w.York., bloody-mary w.York., dragon’s blood Shrop., Hamp., pink bird’s eye s.Buck., London-pink Glouc.

stink-bob, stinking-bobby Cumb., Buck., n.Hert., Sussex, stinking-roger ne.Lanc., candlestick, wren’s flower, wild geranium Devon, wild pink Glouc., squinter-pip Shrop., knife-and-fork s.Buck., knives-and-forks n.Som., cuckoo’s eye s.Buck., Kent cuckoo-bread s.Buck., dog’s toe Donegal, kiss-me Devon, soldier(‘s) buttons s.Buck., bachelor’s button Sussex, Devon, little bachelor button Sussex, billy-button Berk., bird’s eye Nhb., Berw., Devon, sparrow-birds Som., sailor’s-knot Buck., fellon-grass n.York., fellon-wort n.York., herb-rabbit w.Som., Devon, stocks-bill n.Cy. (for stork-), fox-geranium e.Anglia >app, nightingale-flower Buck., kiss-me-john at the garden-gate(s) s.Buck., death-come-quickly Cumb. (prob. a misapplied name), adder’s tongue Essex (?). jenny-wren w.Som. is the Wren

Geranium versicolor

Penciled Crane’s-bill

avens (Ofr. avence, Med. Lat. avantia, an unidentified plant), painted-lady Devon, king’s hood Nhb., Queen Anne’s needlework Nhp., granny’s cap n.Wilt., granny’s nightcap Wilt., old-woman’s bonnet Wilt., bill-button Wilt., cock-and-hens Nhb., egyptian n.Wilt.

Geum urbanum

Herb Bennet

minarta Irel., brown primoses Linc., herb-bennet, herbal-bennet Glouc.(French benoîte) ram’s fool root Devon, London-basket n.York.

Gladiolus (garden hybrids)

jacob’s bladder Glouc., Suff., Devon: Ippleden, fox-glove Devon, french-pops w.Som., lœfer OE (see Iris pseudacorus)

Gladiolus (garden hybrids)

Glaucium flavum

squatmore Hamp., Dorset, gold-watches Dorset

Yellow Horned-poppy

Glaux maritima

sea-milkwort Ork.

Sea Milkwork

Glechoma hederacea

Ground Ivy

gill, gill-ale Irel., Cumb., York., Linc., Leic., War., Wor., Glouc., Berw., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., Som., Devon, ale-hoof York., Shrop., Sussex, Devon, Dorn., ale-hoofe Shrop., Sussex (used in ale making) (OE hōfe, ME hai-hove), jill Wor., gill-creep-the-ground Som., gill-go-by-(the) ground, gill-go-by-the-round Cumb., Linc., Hamp., jill-run-(by) the-ground n.Linc., Buck.

creeping-jenny n.Linc., jen-on-the-ground sw.Linc., jenny-run-by-the-ground n.Linc., jewel-run-the-ground Buck., ground-ivvins, ground-ivvens Ches., ground-avie, grun-davy Scot., n.Dmf., Nhb., runnidyke Cumb., rob-run-up (the) dyke Cumb., robin-run-a-hedge Fermanagh, s.Lanc., Ches., Derby., s.Not., Leic., Wor., Shrop., Sussex, nep Suff., bird’s eye Nhp., Oxf., Berw., deceivers Essex, devil’s candlestick w.York., War., hens-and-chickens s.Buck.

Glyceria maxima

leed Linc., Cumb., lid Linc., white leed Linc., Cumb., withers Devon, reed-blade Nhp., palm-grass Nhp. (a name for Carex)

Reed Sweet-grass

Gymnadenia conopsea

long-tails Kent

Fragrant Orchid

Hedera helix


ivy Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Glouc., Kent, Hamp., Wilt., Devon, hivy Devon, ivin n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Linc., iven n.Cy., ivine n.Linc., hiven Nhb., hyven n.Cy., Cumb., e.York., ivvens (plural) Ches., ivvins e.Lanc. ivery sw.Linc., ivory Irel., Not., Nrf., Suff., Essex, Rutland, Hert., e.Anglia (Germ. efeu, OE īfegn, AS îfig, Germ.: Schlesien ewich), from Germ. ewig “eternal”; the ivy is an evergreen plant that seems never to die; it probably never does since it propagates over large surfaces by creeping stems; ivy-drum Hamp., Devon “the stems of ivy growing around the trunk of a tree”

alehoof York., Shrop., War., Sussex, Devon, Corn., hay-hoa Hamp., ale-hoove Shrop., Suss., alliff e.Suss. (these names have sometimes been attributed to “ground ivy” which, in this case is the ivy proper, not Glechoma hederacea; the species scientific name hederaca “ivy-like” is the cause of the confusion), love-stone Leic., bird’s meat Som., Devon (the berries) (also Holly), bindwood Scotland

Hedyotis caerulea

piss-a-bed w.York.


Helianthemum nummularium

sun-daisy Linc., rock-rose (-)

Common Rockrose

Helianthus annuus

wall-flower Shrop.


Helianthus tuberosus

black-jack, black-jerusalems Nhp.

Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliotropium arborescens

cherry-pie Wor, e.Kent, w.Som.

Garden Heliotrope

Heliotropium europaeum

soucye Scot. (French souci and many dial. variants Calendula officinalis)


Helleborus foetidus

Stinking Hellebore

setter Nrf., setter-grass .Cy., n.York., Essex, setter-wort n.Cy., w.York., Essex, Hamp., I.Wight “Used with garlic and other irritants for causing a running from the seton”, gargut-root e.Anglia, Nrf., bear’s foot York. War., Wor., Glouc., Wilt., he-barfoot War., boar’s foot s.Berw.

Helleborus niger

winter-rose Devon, fellon-grass Cumb., Westm., setter-grass n.Cy., n.York.

Black Hellebore

Helleborus viridis

bear’s foot York. War., Wor., Wilt., she-barfoot War.

Green Hellebore

Hepatica nobilis

ivy-flower Glouc.


Heracleum sphondylium


eltrot Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som. (also attributed to other Umbelliferae such as Berula angustifolia and Anthriscus sylvestris, Oenanthe crocata, Daucus carota), altrot, eldroot Wilt., Dorset, eldertrot s.Wilt., eldrop Dorset, heltrot, hiltrot Hamp., hilltrot Hmp, Wilt., old-rot e.Som.,

cow-keeks, cow-kecks, cow-kelcks Nhb., cow-mumble Linc., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., cow-parsnip Staff., cow-stalk Corn., cow-clogweed Glouc., cow-flop Devon

dry-kesh Cumb., dryland-scout Tyrone: Rock, bun s.Wexf., Westm., York., Derby, e.Anglia (a dry stalk, hollow stem, especially of Heracleum).

bunnel Lanark, Cumb., bunnum n.York., bunnerts n.Scot., York., bunwand York., bunewand York., Scot., Angus (see bun in Plant parts), limperscrimp Som., Devon, limpernscrimp w.Som., limperscrip, limpet-screen, limp’s krimp Devon, lumper-scrump Som., humpy-scrumples nw.Devon

hog-weed Staff., Cumb., n.York., Kent, Sussex, s.Buck., Hert., Nrf., Suff., pig’s bubbles Som., pig’s cole Devon, pig’s parsnip Shrop., w.Cy., w.Som., pig-weed Oxf., bilder(s) Som., Devon., Som., swine-weed Nhp.

bluchtan, bluchton Gall. (“a piece of the hollow stem used as a popgun”), gulschock-scoot Ayres. (pea-shooter made out of the hollow stems), cat-haw-blows I.Wight (stalk used as a pea-shooter), pixy Corn. (the dried stem), spoots Cumb. (stalks used as candles).

sweet-biller Devon, broad-weed Dorset, broad kelk n.York., rough-kex w.York., keglus Ches., kedlock Lanc. Ches., caddel, cadweed Devon (perhaps by confusion with Sinapis arvensis, q.v.), hemlock Banff, Lanc., Nhb., York., e.Anglia, cushia n.Cy., York. (see Rumex obtusifolius: cushie-cow), devil’s oatmeal War.(?), snake’s meat Devon (?), hard-head Glouc. (a name for Centaurea nigra), beggar-weed Bdf. (a name for Galium aparine)

Hesperis matronalis

Dame’s Violet

sweet-rocket (-), summer-lilac Som., red-rocket Ches. (the lilac variety), dame’s violet (-), close-siney Devon, sciney, close-sciences e.Anglia (sciney is an apocope of Damascena; “sciences” is a contaminated form), whitsun-gilliflower Shrop., Som., Devon, whitsun-gilly War.

Hieracium (the tall species)

dindle e.Anglia, Nrf.  dindle = shake, tremble, stagger  app. 3.1


Hieracium aurantiacum

grim-the-collier War., Shrop., Cumb., Berk.Som., Glouc.

Orange Hawkweed

Hieracium pilosella

cat’s ears s.Pemb., fellon-herb Corn., lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue War.

Mouse-ear Hawkweed

Hippocrepis comosa

lady-fingers Wilt., lady’s slipper Wilt.

Horseshoe Vetch

Hippophae rhamnoides

Sea Buckthorn

wirwivvle, wirriwibble, wivivvle e.Anglia, whybibbles, wyebibble, wyrvivle, wyvables, wyvivvl Nrf., sea-buckweed (-)

Hippuris vulgaris

johnny-weed Hert., cat-tail Oxf., old-man’s beard Dorset (?)

Mare’s Tail

Holcus lanatus, Holcus mollis

Yorkshire-fog, Creeping soft-grass

duffle-grass York., Dur., pluff-grass Banff, wooly-softgrass Bnff., Yorkshire-grass Bdf., white-topped grass Cumb., white-twitch Bdf., Cumb. (attributed to Agropyron repens), white-grass n.York., hose-grass Ayr., hay-seed York., I.Man, pussy’s tail Sussex  app. 3.9; midge-grass Nhb., dart-grass n.Cy., w.York., rot-grass Scot., pig-wick York., water-grass n.York., Glouc., Munster (?), this species is not associated with water

Hordeum murinum

squirrel-grass Kent, squirrel(‘s)-tail Cumb. Kent

Sea Barley

Hordeum secalinum

meadow-barley Sussex, squirrel-tail grass Kent, meadow-quake n.Linc.

Meadow Barley

Hordeum vulgare

Cultivated Barley

barley Scot., Irel., England, barish Irel., baarich Wexf. (ON barr), barley-big Suff., barley-pickle Scot. (the spike), bear-barley Nhb. (a coarse kind), bigg, big Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Derby, Nrf., Suff., byg Westm., bygg Nhb. “a coarse kind of barley”, chester-barley, chester-bear Angus, Perth (a coarse kind of barley), sprat, sprat-barley Nhb., York., Nhp., Suff. (a variety), layer-barley e.Suff. “barley sown with clover”

The awns: havel e.Anglia, avel Glouc., e.Anglia, avil Suff., ail widespread, aile Wilt., Corn., eye Wilt., ile War., Heref., Nhp., Essex, Kent, Wilt., Som., Devon, Corn., oil Suss., Hamp., Devon, oile Corn., oyles Berk., Hamp., hail Wilt., hile Devon, Corn., hoil Dorset, hoile Kent (awns of barley (or other kinds of grain) appear to be related to French aiguille; horn e.Anglia, e.Suff. (the awns), spire n.Linc. “horns of barley and of horned wheat”, rauns n.Scot. (awns)

Hottonia palustris

water-yarrow York., feather-foil Cumb.

Water Violet

Humulus lupulus


hop Scot., Nhb., York., Wor., Hrf., Glouc., e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Devon, Corn. (Germ. hopf; cf. Sw., Norw. hupp “tuft”, East Flemish hoppe “clump of grass)  app. 2.7.1. holm Glouc., Sussex, Hamp., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., holme Hamp., holn, hoom Devon, holm-berry Dorset, home Dorset, Som., Devon, e.Corn., hum Corn. (Sw., Dan. humle, French houblon, MLDutch hommel, AS hymele), buck-hop Kent (the male plant), burr Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight (the blossom), farnham-whit Hrf. (a variety)

Huperzia selago

tree-moss Cumb. (from its shape)

Fir Clubmoss

Hydrangea macrophylla

heathereenge Frf., e.Perth, Fife, high-angels Corn., high-geraniums (corruptions of Hydrangea), changeable Linc.

Bigleaf Hydrangea

Hydrocotyle vulgaris

Marsh Pennywort

rot-grass Cumb., water-rot, white-rock Ches., white-rot Ches., Shrop. (a contraction of white-rocket – B.&H. in Wright; white is prob. for “water”), penny-rot Shrop., farthing-rot Nrf., ouw I.Man, fairy-table Ches., sheep-rot Caith., Nhb., Cumb., sheep bane (-)

Hyoscyamus niger

hen-pen Westm., hen-penny Lakel., hog-bean Cumb., stinking-roger Cumb., loaves-of-bread Nhp. (the seed-pods)


Hypericum androsaemum


tutsan(leaf), tutson Buck., e.Cy., Suff., tutsan (Fr. toute-saine), touchen-leaves, touchan-leaves Hamp., touching-leaf, touch-leaf Wales touch-and-heal Buck. (from tutsan, by folk etymology), treacle-leaf Cumb., sweet-leaf Devon, sweet-amber Sussex, Saint-Peter’s wort n.York.

Hypericum calycinum


aaron’s beard Berw., Roxb., Nhb., n.Dur., Shrop., Glouc., Essex, Devon, old-man’s beard Devon, star-of-Bethlehem Midl., Jerusalem-star Shrop., rose-of-Sharon Lanc., Ches., Linc., War., Suff., Dorset, rosin-rose York., sweep Wilt., Solomon’s seal Nhp. (?)

Hypericum perforatum


john’s wood Buck., john’s wort w.Som., penny-john Nrf. (prob. from French jaune), Saint-Peter’s wort Ork., War., touch-and-heal, touch-and-hail N.Irel. (see H. androsaemum), hard-hay (-)

Hypericum tetrapterum

hard-hay (-)

Square-stalked St.John’s-wort

Hypochoeris radicata

bent e.York


Hyssopus officinalis

ezob n.York.


Iberis amara

billy-come-home-soon Shrop.

Wild Candytuft

Ilex aquifolium


holly Nhb., Westm., York., Pemb., Kent (Germ. hülse, hulst, Dutch hulst, French houx, OHG hulis, MHG huls(e), AS holig(n), holen, holegn, ME holi(n); Germ. hülse “husk, shell”, on account of the leathery structure of the leaves); killin Corn. (O.Cornish celin, Breton kelen “holly”), culver Suff., hulver e.Anglia

prick-holly s.Lanc., prick-bush sw.Linc., prick-timber Wilt., prick-wood Cumb., Buck., Sussex (attributed to Euonymus and Cornus sanguinea which are not prickly), hedghog-holly, Edinb., Christ’s Thorn w.York., crocodile Som. (its leaves are crooked), she-holly, she-hollin Nhb. (the unprickly young leaves), free-holly Shrop. (the smooth upper foliage), aunt mary’s tree Corn., sparked-holm Som. (sparked = variegated), bird’s meat Som., Devon (the berries), poison-berry n.York.

Impatiens balsamina

jumping-betty Sussex, Prussian’s cap Hamp.

Garden Balsam

Impatiens glandulifera

nun Lanc., policeman’s helmet, Indian Balsam

Indian Balsam

Impatiens noli-tangere

old-woman’s purse Cumb.


Inula conyza

spikenard w.York., fleawort (-)


Inula helenium


elicompane York., Lanc., Ches., Corn, allicampane w.York., velvet-dock I.Wight, wild sunflower I.Wight., horse-elder, horse-heal (-)

Iris foetidissima

Stinking Iris

dragon’s flower Berw., dragon’s tongue Kent, blue-seggin Ayr., field-lily Dorset, glading-root Irel., flag Devon, poison-berry Devon, dag-berry (for dog-) Dorset (the fruit), snake’s meat, snake’s poison Devon, adder’s victuals Dorset (attributed to I. germanica), snake’s fiddes I.Wight, snake’s food Devon

Iris germanica

hog-knives Suff., duck’s bill w.Som. (“a narrow-leaved variety” Iris sibirica ?)

Garden Iris

Iris pseudacorus

Yellow Iris

flag England, York., Not., Linc., s.Buck., Shrop., Oxf., Hamp., I.Wight, Devon, vlag Berk., flagger, flaggon, flagon, flagan Irel., fligger e.Anglia (var. of flagger), corn-flag (-), yellow-flag Ches., War., Hert., water-flag, water-gladiole Cumb. (attributed to Lobelia dortmanna), mekkin Lakel, York., Lanc., meckin Lakel., Cumb., meckan Cumb., maikin Lanc., makin ne.Lanc., meakin Lakel., w.York., n.Lanc., sword Scot.

shelister Argyll, laister Corn. (O.Cornish alester, Welsh elstr, eleastar, feleastr Gael. Irel., seilisdeir Gael. Scot. “flag, yellow iris”)

levers Irel., I.Wight., Wxf., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., leavers Corn., levver(s) I.Wight, Devon, levvur(s) I.Wight, liver(s), liver-leaves Dorset, liverack s.Pemb. (also any sword-bladed plant; OE lœfer “Gladiolus”)

gladdon e.Anglia, gladden (bushes) Nrf., e.Angl., Nrf., gladen Nrf. (attributed to Typha), skeg e.York., trinity-plant Dorset (three large petals), flower(y)-de-luce York. (French fleur-de-lis), cucumbers Devon (the seed-vessels) dragon’s flower Devon, butter-and-eggs Nhp., Oxf., Berw. (see Caltha), water seg York. (?)

Isatis tinctoria

Dyer’s Green

green-weed, greening-weed e.Angl. (Dutch weede) yellow Midl., yellowing-grass Shetl. “grass from which a yellow die is extracted”, woadwax, woadwex Wilt., Dorset, woodas Westm., woadwise Wilt., woadwesh, woadwish Gall., n.Cy., York. (AS waad, Dutch weede, Germ. waide, Dan. vaid, veid, Sw. veide)  app 1.2.1, sarrat Westm., she-broom n.York., Ches., brummal Corn. (see Brambles)

Jasione montana

blue-buttons Cumb., Wilt., Dorset, bluecap w.York., iron-flower Ches., sheep’s bit (-)


Jasminum officinale


jessamy e.Anglia, Som. Devon, jessama, jessame Devon, jeshamy e.Anglia, Suff., horse-jessamin Devon “coarse-flowered j.”)

Jateorhiza calumba (J. palmata)

collabin s.Pemb. (the root), from kalumb, its name in an African language


Juglans regia


walnut Hrf., Som., Suff., french-nut Som., Devon, Corn., vrench-nites Devon (the nut, as opposed to the hazelnut), hood Wor. (the outer shell),

Juncus (acutiflorus)

Sharp-flowered Rush

spart Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Durham, spret Fife, Dmf., I.Wight, Nhb., sprit Scot., Cumb., Nhp. Irel., spreat Scot., sprot Scot., Nhb., York., Nhp., sprawt, sproat Nhp., sprooat York.

clock-seaves, clock-seavers Cumb., York., clock-seeaves w.York., clock-seves, clock-sives n.York., sieves (see sedge in Plantlife), closs Cumb. (M.Dutch closs stipes, Dutch closs stem), flush-cocks Cumb., Westm.

Juncus bufonius

coa-grass w.Som. (coe is a disease of certain animals), salt-weed Suff. (= Glasswort ?)

Toad Rush

Juncus effusus

Soft Rush

watch-light-rush Lanark (used to make rush or watch-light), wire-rush n.York., hard rush (-), pin-rush Nrf., needle-rush Som. “a rush”,  app. 2.13; chate Nrf. (Wright sub pin-rush), candle-rush (-)

Juncus squarrosus

Heath Rush

star w.Aberd., star-bent Cumb., stool-bent, bent-stool Scot., Nhb., whirl-bent Cumb., black-bent Nhb., Durham, rose-bent Nhb., bent Nhb. e.York., burra Shetl., Ork., bruckles Aberdeen, geus-corn Cumb. (These names have been attributed to “Juncus squarrosus”, but the commonest species is Juncus articulatus for which no name has been attested)

Juniperus commun


ginifer, jinifer Nhb., geneva-plant Ches. (French genièvre, Lat. juniper), aitnach Aberdeen, Angus, horse-saving Cumb.

Juniperus sabina

kill-bastard York., bastard-killer w.Som.


Kerria japonica

Japanese Rose

yellow-rose Dev., summer-rose Devon, guinea-flower, guinea-plant n.Linc., jew’s mallow (-), tisty-tosty Devon, bachelor’s button Wilt.

Knautia arvensis

Field Scabious

blue-buttons Cumb., Wilt., beily-button York., bachelor’s button Glouc., Berk., Wilt., Som., Devon, gipsy-rose, gipsies’ rose w.York., Nrf., I.Wight, Devon, egyptian-rose I.Wight, broad-weed n.Dev., cardies Irel. (Italian carda “thistle”), lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion Kent, morthen Hrf., pincushion Not., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, Wilt., scabril Ches., clodweed s.Buck., sweet-scabious (-)

Kniphofia uvaria

devil’s poker Devon, torch-lily (-), red-hot poker Devon

Poker Plant

Koenigia islandica

anise Devon

Iceland Purslane

Laburnum anagyroides


gold-chain(-tree) Nhp., War., Wor., Hrf., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., chaney ash Ches., golden-charms s.Pemb., golden-drops n.Linc., golden-rain War., Suss., golden-showers Shrop. (from its pendant blossoms)

drooping-willow Devon, ear-rings Ches., French ash Derby, French-broom Shrop., he-broom Fife, lady-fingers w.York., pea-tree, peascod-tree Scot., old-lad pea-cods w.York., watch-guards Ches.

Lactuca sativa

salad e&w.York. (as in France, the plant got its name from the dish)


Lactuca virosa

goat-lettuce w.York.

Great Lettuce

Lamium album

White Deadnettle

dumb-nettle w.Wor., Glouc., Hert., Essex, Wilt., dum-nettle Oxf., dun-nettle Shrop., dead nettle, blind nettle (-), bee-nettle Not. Linc., Leic., Ches., white bee-nettle War., white nettle Glouc., white sting-nettle, Devon, dinny-leaf nettle Buck., archangel Nrf., Leic., Som., Glouc., Buck., Devon, weazel-snout Som., honey-suckle Wilt., snake-flower Cumb., Nrf., Essex

Lamium galeobdolon

yellow archangel n.York., Devon, weasel-snout Glouc., w.Som., n.York.

Yellow Archangel

Lamium maculatum

variegated nettle York., Ches. (a learned name)

Spotted Deadnettle

Lamium purpureum

Red Deadnettle

dead-nettle Nhb., w.York., Shrop., Cumb., dea-nettle Nhb., day-nettle n.Cy., Caith., York., sw.Cumb., Wor., dee-nettle w.York., deea-nettle n.York., Cumb., deye-nettle Nhb., deaf-nettle York, w.Som., Linc., Wilt., Devon (also aplied to Lamium album; both look like a nettle but do not sting), bee-nettle Linc., Not. red bee-nettle War., red archangel Nrf., purple-dea-nettle Shrop., french-nettle Shrop bad man(‘s) posies Nhb., black-man’s posies Cumb., rabbit’s meat Shrop., stinking-weed Cumb., dog-nettle Ches.

Larix decidua

larick Scot., Nhb., lairick Aberdeen, lerrick Lothian (name introduced along with the tree)


Lathraea squamaria

corpse-flower w.York., toothwort (-)


Lathyrus linifolius

Bitter Vetch

knapperts, knapparts Irel., Scot., Aberdeen, knopperts (-), knaperty Antrim, naperty N.Irel.; napple Scot., (from its knotty tubers – in Wright), peasling York., cormeille, caperilla n.Scotland, heath-pea; cob Dmf., Gall. (the seed vessel of peas) app. 2.7.3

Lathyrus nissolia

shoes-and-stockings Sussex., Buck.

Grass Vetchling

Lathyrus odoratus

painted lady I.Man, n.Wilt., show-pea Nrf.,

Sweet Pea

Lathyrus pratensis

Meadow Vetchling

yellow tare-tyne Midl., yellow tar-fitch Ches., yellow-thatch Wilt., golden-chain Wilt., craw-peas Nhb., tom-thumb Berk., Sussex, tom-thumb honeysuckle Wilt., thetch-hay Dorset, handlberry n.Cy., angle-berry n.Cy. “probably because it angles or catches hold and clings to plants or shrubs”, lady-fingers e&n.York., I.Wight, Wilt., lady’s slipper Wilt., blue tare-tyne Midlands (?)

Lathyrus tuberosus

Tuberous Pea

carmel, carmylie Scot., carameil, carrameille Lanark (Gaelic cairmeal “wild liquorice, wood pea”), caperoiles Scot.: Lanark, fyfield pea (-)

Lavandula angustifolia


lavender Irel., England, Nhp., Berk., Hamp., lavendher s.Irel., spick, spik, speck Hamp., Wil., Dorset, Som. Devon, speet Som. speke, spuke Devon, spikenard York., Hamp., Wilt. (from the sc. name), knob Ches., neps Lanc., Ches., naps s.Ches. (the dried flower-buds) ð app. 2.2

Lecesteria formosa

Elisha’s tears Dorset

Flowering Nutmeg

Legousia hybrida

long-codded corn-belt-flower War., “corn violet”

Venus Looking Glass

Lemna minor

Common Duckweed

duck'(s) meat, duke’s meat Scot., dig-meat Ches. (dig = duck), duckweed (-), duckery se Lanc., duck-pond weed sw.Cumb., mardlens, mardlins, mardling e.Anglia, Suff., Essex (madle “pond”; for lens, see lentil), jenny-green-teeth War., boggart War., jenny-greenteeth, creed Wilt., rat-weed Nrf., mozed Shrop. “of a pond or lake: having the surface overgrown with duck-weed etc.”, and prob. also with floating algae (conferva); = “mossed”, see Conferva: moss-balls), groves, grozen Som.

Lens culinaris

lentil English (French lentille)


Leontodon autumnalis

scotch garkin Donegal, calve’s feet Glouc., hawkbit

Autumn Hawkbit

Lepidium campestre

poor man’s pepper War.

Field Pepperwort

Lepidium latifolium

dittany n.Cy., Nhb., dittander, pepperwort England (OF ditayne is from Latin dictamnus, Greek díktamnon, an unidentified plant). In botany Dictamnus albus is applied to an unrelated plant, the Fraxinella, or Burning Bush; Dittany is also applied to Origanum dictamnus


Lepidium sativum

pepper-cress Devon, tongue-grass Irel. (pungent taste), small salet w.Som. (salad)

Garden Cress

Leucanthemum vulgare

Oxeye Daisy

moon Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Buck., Berw., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex., Wilt., moon-daisy e.York., Ches., War., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Surrey, Wilt., moon-flower Wor. app. 2.11

oxeye, great oxeye Cumb., cow’s eyes Corn.  app. 2.12

bull-daisy Cumb., n.York., Ches., e.Anglia, bull’s eye Ches.  app. 2.1

horse-daisy Nhb., Hrf., Buck., Wilt., Huntingdon, Kent, Sussex, w.Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., harse-daisy Som., oss-daisy Devon, horse-pennies Derby, horse-gollan, horse-gowan, horse-gowlan Scot., Caith., Clyde, Berw., Nhb.

dog-flower Cumb., dog-daisy Antrim, Down, Nhb., Dur., Cumb., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Leic., w.Wor., Buck., Hert., Wilt., w.Som., nw.Devon (horse-, dog-: prob. on the model of bull-daisy)

daisy War., Sussex, London-daisy (-), gipsy’s daisy Nrf., dun-daisy, dunder-daisy Som., poor-land daisy Nhp., poverty-weed Ches.

gold Lanc., white gold s.Cumb., n.Lanc., white gull Cumb., white gowlan Nhb., gadgevraw, gadjerwraw, gad-je-raw Corn., grandmother s.Not. “prob. because the white rays suggest the frilled border of an old-fashioned cap” (in Wright), espibawn Irel. (from Irish Gaelic easpuig-bán, easbog meaning “bishop” et bán “white”)

dutch-morgan I.Wight, margaret w.York. (French marguerite), maudlin Wilt.  app. 1.5.1

maise n.Linc., mays sw.Linc., mazen Dorset, maithen Glouc., Wilt. (see Anthemis cotula), great-daisy Cumb., large dicky-daisy Ches., midsummer- crazy-bet Wilt. (see Ranunculus spp.), devil’s daisy Midl. (= prob. Chamomilla)

Leucojum aestivum

snow-flake w.Som.

Summer Snowflake

Leucojum vernum

butter-and-eggs Dorset

Spring Snowflake

Ligustrum vulgare


privy, privie, privy-saugh Scot., York., Ches., War., Shro., Suff., privvy Lanc., privet England (used in hedges for privacy purposes; no kin to “primrose”), prim York., Linc., Nhp., Kent, Sussex, primp Linc., print Nhp., skedge, skedgwith, skerrish Corn.

Lilium candidum

lily Scot., England

Madonna Lily

Lilium martagon, Lilium tigrinum

turk’s cap Derby, turn-cap lily War. (err. for turk-cap ?), crumple-lily Devon (from the turning back of the petals), elizabeth Corn.

Martagon Lily, Tiger Lily

Linaria vulgaris

Common Toadflax

butter-haycocks York., butter-and-eggs Cumb., York., Wor., Clouc., n.Berw., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, Som. Devon, eggs-and-bacon w.York., s.Not., Rutland., Glouc., Nrf., Wilt., Som., Devon, eggs-and-butter n.Wilt., w.Som., Devon, eggs-and-collops n.Cy., w.York., Lanc., chopt-eggs Cumb. (from its bi-coloured flower, yellow and orange)

puppy-dog’s mouth Wilt., tiger’s mouth Sussex, lion’s mouth Suss., mouse’s mouths Wilt., dog-mouth Wilt., weasel-snout Kent

lark-spur Buck., gall-wort Suss., wild snap-dragon n.Linc., Oxf., dragon’s bushes n.Cy., brandy-snap Sussex, bride-weed Shrop., monkey-face n.York., bread-and-cheese Wilt., shoes-and-stockings Devon, hens-and-chickens Kent, fox-and-hounds Linc., I.Wight, bacon-and-eggs Wilt. “so called from the two shades of yellow in the flower”

toad-flax (-), rabbit Devon, rabbit-flower Devon (also Cymbalaria muralis), snap-dragon York.

Linum catharticum

fairy-flax Berw., n.Cy., fairy-lint Nhb., n.Cy., purging-flax Ches., laverock’s lint Lanark

Fairy Flax

Linum usitatissimum


lin Irel., Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Linc., w.Cy., Dorset, lyn Nhb., lint Irel., Irel., n.Cy., Nhb., York., Ches., Shrop., e.Anglia, lahn n.York., leyne Cumb., line N.Irel., Dmf., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., Linc. (French lin “flax”, originally from Latin linea “thread”: the plant used to make yarns); lintseed Scot., Edinb., Shrop., I.Wight., lintzeed I.Wight, linset, linget Scot., linjet Frf. (seed of flax); lintseed-bow Scot., Shrop. (the pod), lint-bells Scot. (the flowers); flax Irel., Linc., Shrop., Dorset, Som., England, flix, vlix Dorset, vlex w.Som. (AS fleax, Germ. flachs),

Lippia citriodora

orange-willow Devon

Lemon Verbena

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tulip Tree

tulip-tree York., Wilt., Devon, an ornamental tree (attributed to Acer pseudo-platanus and justified “because the smell is supposed to resemble that of the tulip” ! (tulips have no odour)

Listera ovata

twayblade w.York. (not “swayblade” = twin-blade), adder’s tongue Wilt.

Common Twayblade

Lithospermum officinale

stony-hard n.Cy., n&e.York.

Common Gromwell

Lobelia urens

flower of the axe Devon “named from the river Axe”

Heath Lobelia

Lobularia maritima

Sweet Alison

sow-drift Devon, snow-drop berry Ches., snow-in-harvest Nhp., snow-on-the-mountain Devon, bordering, edging Devon (plant suitable for edgings), anise Devon (Latin anisum, borrowed from Greek anison), sweet-allison (-), sweet-alice Devon (also attributed to Arabis alpina) (Lat. alyssus < Greek álysson), honey-wort Hamp.

Lolium multiflorum

pickle Devon  app. 2.9

Italian Rye-grass

Lolium perenne

Perennial Rye-grass

rye-grass Hert., Wilt., riely, riley, rivery Irel., ray, rye-grass, ray-grass Wilt., eaver(grass) Glouc., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., aiver Corn., aver Som., ayver, hayver, heaver, iver Devon, Corn., eever Glouc., Devon., ever Dorset, Devon, Corn, every Glouc., Dorset, hayvor n.Devon, hever, hievre, hether Devon, Devon-eaver w.Som., Devon-evver Som. (OFrench evraie, French ivraie; ray- and rye-grass also relate to ivraie)

wrack’s grass Scot. (see wrack sea alga), white nonsuch Nrf., tinker-tailor Devon, crop Suss., crap(grass) Wor., Suff., Sussex, bent Bdf. (collective name for grasses), aye-no-bent Glouc. (perennial rye-grass)

Lolium temulentum, L. perenne

Darnel, Perennial Rye-grass

dragge Nrf., Suff., drawk, drauk N.Cy., Nrf., York., ne.Lanc., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., Kent, Sussex, drake ne.Lanc., s.Ches., Staff., droke n.Cy., n.Ork., Kent, drook Ches., drooak n.York., drunk n.Cy., drunken-plant Buchan, by folk etymology; to drowk, drucken = to droop (OF droe appears to be a borrowing from English), darna s.Ches., darnel (-) (Walloon darnelle), cheat I.Wight, Dorset, cokil OE (Grieve), jum w.Cy., lovers’ step Sussex

Lonicera periclymenum


honey-stick War., Glouc. (attributed to Clematis), honey-suckle Ches. suckle-bush Nrf., suckling e.Anglia (attributed to Lotus corniculatus), honey-suck York., Nhp., War., Hamp., Dorset, Som., honey-souk n.York., honey-zook Som., honey-zuck Dorset, honey-bind Oxf. (the base of the flowers are sucked for nectar), bind, bindweed w.York., bindwood m.York., Cumb., bearbind Ches., wood-bind, wood-bine Cumb., Linc., Rnf., w.York., Glouc., Oxf. n.Wil., wood-wind Shrop., withywind nw.Devon  app. 3.7; Irish vine Donegal, lady-fingers York., Dur., Nhb., Rxb.

Lotus corniculatus

Common Bird’s-foot Trefoil

claws Som., cat’s claws, cat’s clover Nhb., Berw., Lanc., cat-poddish sw.Cumb., catten-clover cat-in-clover, s.Scot., craa-taes, craa’s foot Nhb., craw-tees Nhb. (toes), crow-foot Glouc., Suff., bird’s foot Suff., sheep-foot sw.Cumb., cat’s clover Nhb., cataclue Shetl.

pig’s foot Suff., pig’s pettytoes Suss., lamb’s-foot Lanc., lamb-toe, lamb’s toes Not., Linc., Leic., War., tommy-totles n.York., tom-thumb w.York., Oxf., Wilt., Devon.

cheese-cake n.York., Wor., cheese-cake flowers York., cheese-cake grass n.Cy., e. and n. York., cheese-flower Sussex, Wilt., cheese-log s.Berw., cheese-nut Devon, eggs-and-bacon Sussex., Nhp., Rutland, butter-jags n.Cy., butter-eggs Cumb., butter-and-eggs Cumb., War., Sussex (see Linaria vulgaris), ground-honeysuckle Ches., lamb-suckling, lamb’s suckling n.Cy., w.York., bloom-fell, fell-bloom Scot., hens-and-chickens Oxf., jack-jump-about Nhp., cammock Devon (see Ononis natrix), claver Angus, yellow-clover w.York., lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion, lady’s pincushion Dorset, love-entangled Corn.

Lunaria annua


moon-wort Wilt., money-plant Devon, money-in-every-pocket, money-in-both-pocket Lakel., Kent, Wilt., Som., Devon  app. 2.11; shilling War., silks-and-satins Devon, satin-flower n.Linc., Nhp., white satin-flower Kent, satin-leaves Ches., davie-drap Scot., round sound honesty sw.Scot., soldier’s feather sw.Scot.

Luzula campestris

Field Wood-rush

black-caps Nhb. black-head Ches., gipsy s.Wilt. (brown inflorescence like Gypsies), smut Buck (allusion to the black inflorescences), crow-foot n.York., cock Down, cuckoo-grass Nhb., w.York., Corn., gook-grass w.York. peesweep-grass Nhb., god-friday grass Surrey, god’s grace Ches., hair-bearad Nhp.

Lychnis chalcedonica

scarlet-lightning Nhp., Glouc., Oxf., s.Buck., Suff., Devon, London-pride Scot., Glouc., Maltese cross (-)

Maltese Cross

Lychnis flos-cuculi

Ragged Robin

ragged-robin Buck., rough-robin sw.Cumb., robin I.Wight, Wilt., robinhood w.Cy., Dur., Dorset, w.Som., Devon, robin-wood Devon, robin-redbreast Corn., robin’s eye, robin(‘s) flower Devon, robin-ith-hedge York. (robin = red, Lat. rubus),  red-bird’s eye s.Radnor, red-butcher Ches., red gramfer-greygles Dorset, red-jack Ches., red mint-drops Nhb., red robinhood Wilt., red soldiers n.Cy., indian-pink Glouc., wild williams Berk., billy-button War., bachelor’s button Sussex

Lycopodium clavatum

Stag’s-horn Clubmoss

running-moss Cumb., buck grass, buck-moss Cumb., buckthorn Cumb., Devon, Corn., creeping-burr Carmathan, fox’s claws Nhb., fox-feet Cumb., moor-hen’s foot Antrim, lamb-tails Shrop., fox’s tail Nhb., Cumb., fox-tails Cumb. fork-and-knives e.Anglia, lady’s knives-and-forks w.Som., knife-and-fork, knives-and-forks Shrop., robinhood’s hat-band Cumb., York., good-luck Lakel., traveller’s joy n.York.

Lysimachia nemorum

star-flower Wilt.

Yellow Pimpernel

Lysimachia nummularia

Creeping Jenny

creeping-jane Wilt., creeping-jenny War., Glouc., Wilt., Hert., Midl., nw.Devon, wandering-jenny Cumb., wandering-sailor Dorset, Devon. roving-sailor Hamp., meadow-runagates Nhp, for jenny  app. 1.2.2; two-penny n.York. (from its twin opposite round leaves), string-of-sovereigns Antrim, moneywort (-), mother-wort, mother-worth Hamp., Devon

Lysimachia vulgaris

yellow-rod n.York., yellow-saugh w.York., yellow-rocket Buck.

Yellow Loosestrife

Lythrum salicaria

red-sally Lanc., long-purple(s) Nhp., Wilt., Dorset, soldier Kent

Purple Loosestrife

Malcolmia maritima

little-and-pretty Devon, children of Israel Wilt., Dorset

Virginia Stock

Malus pumila, varieties

Cultivated Apple

apple Irel., Nhb., Linc., Nhp., Wor., Shrop., Hmp, Wilt. Som., Devon, Corn., fruit Wor., Hrf. (the apple); apple-blowth Som., Dorset “apple blossom”; croke, crak York., Linc., Devon “core of an apple”.

Varieties of apple: well-apple Hamp., virgin, sweet-brat, lady-crab Ches., stire, stire-apple, john-apple Ches., Glouc., costard Scot., Lanc., Nhp., Shrop., Suff., Dorset (a large kind of apple), morris-apple Hamp. “an apple with very red cheeks”, belliborion, dore-apple E.Anglia, Nrf., early-marlet Hrf., flesh-and-blood, duck’s bill, buff-coat, cobble-dick-longer-skin Devon, golden-nob, golden-pippin w.Som., golden-rozet Hrf., golden-tankard w.York. (shaped not unlike a pear), goose-apple Ches., Shrop., gracy s.Devon, griffin Dorset, hard-head Lakel., honey-pin Corn., honey-pink Dorset, kempster Oxf. “from the name of the man who first introduced this variety”, prob. by folk etymology; kemps = “coarse fibres”, the name denoting perhaps a coarse variety), lady-apple e.Dorset, lady-buddick Som., Mary-apple Hamp.  app. 1.4; madgetin e.Anglia, e.Suff. (the Margaret apple, cf. Normandy margoton, a variety)  app. 1.5.1; manperamble Leic., nonpareil (French nonpareil), quarrener Som., Devon., Corn., caraway Som., quarender, quarendel, quarington Devon., quarendon Corn., quarantine nw.Devon., Corn., queening Ches., Shrop., Hrf., queenen, quinin Shrop., quining Hrf., white heads Devon, red-streak Hrf., red-strokes Lakel., rust-coat Som., hoar-morning nw.Devon., dogsnout Lakel., espaniard Devon, hoary-pitcher, hoary-mourning Pemb., bomble Glouc. “potato-apple”, apple-john Ches., War., e.Anglia, white heads Devon, lady-fingers Ches., lammas w.Som. (a variety ripening about Lammas Day; see Prunus domestica)

Malus pyrifolia

forbidden-fruit War., Wor.

Asian Pear

Malus pyrus, varieties

Cultivated Pear

whitten-pear, whitty Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Radnor, w.Cy. Wilt., witty w.Wor., Shrop., whitty-pear Wor., whitty pear-tree Shrop., Hrf., w.Cy., bishop’s thumb w.York., w.Som., tarporley-peach, Aston town pear, tattenhall girder Ches., stone-pear n.York., choke-pear Shrop. (“a very hard winter pear”), cuisse-madam, queez-maddam Scot. (the jargonelle) (French cuisse-dame), elsin-heft Scot. “an old name of the jargonelle pear”, golden-knap Sterling, gold-nep s.Lanc., Ches., honey-knobs War., Wor., honey-pear Lanark, apple-pear (-), woody-carl Rxb., mumby e.Anglia, rousselette, jargonelle (-)

Malus sylvestris

Crab Apple

crab Scot., England, grab(apple) Nhb., Glouc., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., wood-crab w.York., wharre Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, werr nw.Devon, wher York., e.Lanc., wherr s.Lanc., whir Cumb., w.York., Derby; from hurr (Linc., Kent., Sussex) tart, astringent, rough-tasting, yar (York., Lanc.) acid, sour, wherry” very sour”, coling, koling Shrop., law e.Anglia (also the berries of the haethorn, the blackberries and the rose hips), stub-apple e.Anglia

Malva sylvestris

Common Mallow

maul n.Cy., York., Derby, Not., Linc., mawl Derby, mall sw.Linc., mallace Buck., Hamp., I.Wight, Som., Devon, malice w.Som., Devon, mallus I.Wight, maws Scot., Nhb., Not., mawse, maas Nhb., mullere Buck., marsh-mallow Ches., marsh-mallice, marsh-mallish, marsh-mallus Nhb., Shrop., Lakeland, w.Som., Devon, french-mallow Corn.,

The fruit: cheese England widespread, bread-and-cheese York. n.Linc., Shrop., Oxf., Hamp., s.Wilt., Dorset., Som., Devon, cheese-cake n.York., Ches., n.Linc., Wor., Dorset, chokky-cheese, chocky-cheese, chucky-cheese Devon., Corn., chukky-cheese, chacky-cheese Corn., custard-cheeses Linc., frog-cheese Oxf., fairy-cheeses York., ladies’ cheeses Dorset, dutch-cheese Ches., doll-cheeses York., pick-cheese Wor., Hert., e.Anglia, pick-cheese-trees Nrf. (from the shape of the seeds), pellas (-)

pancake-plant Devon, loaves-of-bread Midl., cuckoo-bread Kent, cuckoo-spice w.York., hock, hock-herb, mallow-hocks (-), mallow-rocks Dorset “may be a corruption of mallow-hocks” (Wright), dock I.Wight, Wilt., docken w.York., round-dock Som. (dock usually apply to wide-leaved plants like burdock, see Nymphaea alba)

Mandragora officinalis

midsummer-men e.Anglia


Marrubium vulgare

marvel Scot., York., Sussex, candy-plant War.

White Horehound

Matricaria inodora

Scentless Mayweed

may s.Not., may-weed Brk., Buck, Hert., may-daisy s.Not. (see Anthemis cotula), white gowlan Nhb., dog’s camovyne n.Scot., dog-gowan Scot., dog-daisy Donegal, horse-daisy Som.

Matthiola incana

Hoary Stock

gillyflower Lanark, War., Glouc., Shrop., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn. (see Dianthus caryophyllus), stockgyllyflower, gellyflower-stock Som., hopes Nrf., sinegar, sinnigar Som., jessamy Dorset (see Jasminum), stock, queen-stock(-)

Meconopsis cambrica

yellow-tulip Som.

Welsh Popy

Medicago arabica

spotted clover Corn., Saint-Mawes’ clover St Mawes, dog-clover Som.

Spotted Medick

Medicago lupulina

Black Medick

black-seed, black-grass s.Berw., black-trefoil Nrf., black-nonesuch Nrf., lamb-toe Staff., natural-grass Scilly I., shamrock Dublin, medick (-)

Medicago sativa

lucifer Corn.


Melampyrum arvense

monkey-must Wilt., poverty-weed I.Wight., Sussex

Field Cow-wheat

Melampyrum cristatum

hen-penny ne.Lanc., cow-wheat sw.Cumb.

Crested Cow-wheat

Melilotus alba

bee-flower, king-clover Cumb., king’s claver Scot., hart(‘s) claver, hart(‘s) clover n.Cy., York., Bokkara clover

White Melilot

Melilotus officinalis

whuttle-grass Rxb., wild laburnum Surr., London

Ribbed Melilot

Melissa officinalis


balm Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Linc., Leic., Shrop., Pemb., Berk., Hert., Essex, I.Wight, Wilt., Som., baam I.Wight, bame Berk., w.Som., baulme Essex, baum Cumb., n.Lanc., n.Linc. Her., bawm(e) nYork., w.York., Ches., Shrop., bome Derby, Pemb., apple-balm Antrim

Melittis melissophyllum

balm of Gilead Wilt.

Bastard Balm

Mentha aquatica

bog-mint Irel., bishop’s, bishop’s wort Wilt., Hamp.

Water Mint

Mentha arvensis

lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue Scot.,

Corn Mint

Mentha pulegium


whirl-mint Hamp., organ s.Wor., Hrf., s.Pemb., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, w.Som., Devon, Corn., orgal Corn. (see Origanum vulgare), lurky-dish Ches., lily-royal s.Cy., pudding-grass Cumb., pennyroyal (-)

Mentha spicata

lamb-meat, lammint Devon, sage-of-Bethlehem n.Linc.,

Spear Mint

Mentha suaveolens, and all species of Mentha

horse-mint Nhb., e.York., n.Linc., War., Glouc., I.Wight., w.Som., horse-peppermint Kent (collective for mints), wild sage Shrop., hay-maiden Dorset, lamb-meat, lammint Devon

Apple Mint, and all species of mints

Mentha x piperita


mint Scot., Lanark, Gall., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., pepper-mint Devon, brandy-mint Westm., lamb-meat, lammint Devon

Menyanthes trifoliata


bog-trefoil York., n.Irel., sw. Cumb., I. Man, bog-bean, bog-bane I. Man, buck-bean Roxb., Cumb., York., Ches. (for bog-bean), boag-bane Irel., bog-nut, bog-hop n.Cy., water-trefoil War., three-fold Gall., York., trefold Shetl., white fluff Nrf., fringed water-lily War., Hamp. (fringed petals)

Mercurialis perennis

Dog’s Mercury

boggart-flower, boggart-posy York., bristol-weed Som., adder’s meat Herts., snake’s victuals Sussex, snake-weed Shrop., snake’s bit e.Sussex, kentish-balsam Kent, mercury-leaf s.Scot.

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

ice-plant w.Som.

Common Iceplant

Mespilus germanicus


open-heart n.Linc., open-arse Ches., Linc., War., Wor., Glouc., Nrf., Som., Corn., hose-doup Rxb., hop-mass s.Wilt., medlar

Meum athamanticum


baldmoney Westm., York., badminie Gall., houka Nhb: Throckrington, michen Scot., moiken, muilcionn Perth, spignel (see fennel)

Mimulus sp.


monkey-blossom Corn., monkey-flower N.Irel., w.Som., Corn., monkey-musk Wilt., Devon, monkey-plant Wilt., Som., Devon, frog’s mouth sw.Scot.

Molinia caerulea

flying-ben Nhb.

Purple Moor-grass

Montia fontana

water blinks Banff



mulberry (OE morberie)


Muscari comosum

tuzzy-muzzy Glouc. (also “ragged, dishevelled”; from the appearance of its flowers)

Tassel Hyacinth

Myosotis arvensis

mouse-lug Linc. (lug = ear), herbive, herb-ive Ches.

Field Forget-me-not

Myosotis scorpioides

bird’s eye Nhb, Hamp., ronin’s eye Hamp., snake-grass York.

Water Forget-me-not

Myosotis, collective names

forget-me-not n.Scot., York., s.Cumb., w.Som., Suff., Devon, love-me York., Mary-and-Joseph n.Linc.

Forget-me-not, collective names

Myrica gale

Sweet Gale

gale Scot., Cumb., York., Lanc., Linc., Kent, Devon, Corn., gall(-bush) Scot., Gall., gaul Scot., Cumb., Devon, goyl, goil, goule Kent, gawel, gawan Cumb., scotch-gale Scot., Ayr. (OE gagel, Dutch gagel), sweet-gale Rnf., n.Linc., sweet-willow Sussex, sweet-withy I.Wight, sweet n.Cy., w.York., gold Som., golden-osier I.Wight, golden-withy w.Cy., Hamp., I.Wight, bog-myrtle Scot., moor-myrtle York., moss-wythan Cumb. (= moor willow), Devonshire myrtle s.Devon, flea-wood Nhb.

Myriophyllum verticillatum

mekkin Lakel., Cumb., n.Lanc. ? (see Iris pseudacorus)

Whorled Water-milfoil

Myristica moschata

goose-tongue Wor. (?) certainly err.


Myrrhis odorata

Sweet Cicely

sweet-cicely Edinb., n.York., sweet-cis, sweetsies w.York., sweet n.Cy., switch ne.Lanc., sweet-fern Essex, sweet-humlick Nhb., sweet-chervil n.Cy., anise Devon, annaseed (-), wild anise Cumb., myrrh sw.Cumb., Roman-plant n.Lanc., cow-weed w.York.

Narcissus poeticus

Poet’s Narcissus

sweet-Nancy Lanc., Ches., Nrf., Hamp., white nancy Ches., Staff., white dillies Lanc. > app. 3.5; cesses Rutland (short for narcissus), silverpenink Devon, lily Scot., War.: Fillongley, butter-and-eggs Lanc., War., Surrey, Sussex, Wilt., Devon, Corn., eggs-and-bacon War., Shrop., primrose-parings Devon, primrose-pearl York., primrose-peerless War., finderne’s-flower Derby (double-flowered; “said to have been brought by Sir Geoffrey Finderne from the Holy Land” – Flowers of this genus do not originate from the Middle East)

Narcissus pseudonarcissus


daffodil Scot., Irel., Engl., daffadile Ayr., daffodilly Scot., daffondilly Hert., daffy Cumb., Nhp., buck., Hamp., Wilt., daffydilly Nhp, War., Hunt., daffy Hamp., daffydown Lanc., daffydowndilly N.Irel., Dur., Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Dorset, Linc., Nmp., Suff., Wilt., Hamp., w.Som., s.Not., Hrf., Berk., Dorset, downdilly s.Buck., daffadowndilly w.York., Ches., Not., Leic., War., e.Anglia., s.Linc., Devon, daffodowndilly w.York., Shrop., daffydoondilly n.Linc., apporil Lanc., affodill, affrodile, “but the Ches. word is really haverdril” Ches. (Greek asphodelós), dilly Derby (shortened form).

lent-lily Som., Westm., York., Ches., Derby, n.Linc., War., Glouc., e.Suff., I.Wight, Kent, Surrey, e.Suss., Som., Devon, lent-cocks, lents Lanark, Devon., Corn., lentil Devon (flowering about Lent), lantern-lily, lanthorn-lily War., Easter-lily w.Som., Devon, Easter-rose w.Som.

gracy-daisy w.Som., Devon, greyse-daisy, gracy-day Devon, lily Scot., giggary Devon (from the shape of the flower; gig is also a tube), gregory w.Cy., Devon, cowslip Devon, cowslup War., se.Wor. (= cow’s lip), wild jonquil War. (French jonquille), wild daffadowndilly War., glen Kilmarnock, Queen Anne’s flower Nrf., Saint-Peter’s bell Wales, yellow-jack Surr., bell-rose Som., bell-flower Dorset, Som., guckoo-rose w.Som., goose-flop w.Som., churn Lanc., eggs-and-bacon Dorset, butter-and-eggs Som., Nhp., Devon, eggs-and-butter w.Som., Devon., Corn., hens-and-chickens Devon

Narcissus x medioluteus

butter-and-eggs, whitsunday Devon

Primrose Peerless

Nardus stricta

wire-bent, white-bent Nhb., black-bent n.Cy., Nhb., mat-grass Banff, hen-tail Cumb.,


Narthecium ossifragum

Lancashire asphodel Dorset, moor-grass Hert., maid(‘s) hair n.Linc., Lanc. (?), moor-golds w.York. (prob. for Caltha palustris)

Bog Asphodel

Nasturtium officinale


cresset, cressil Wilt. (attributed to Scrophularia auriculata), cresh, crash York., carses Scotl., carsons Gall., kersouns n.Cy. (French cresson, Norman kerssun), wall-girse Scot., wall-girse kale Banff (wall-ee is a quagmire in which there is a spring; girse = cress), tang-tongues n.York. (as being pungent to the taste) pepper-grass s.Pemb., tongue-grass Irel., Ulster (pungent taste), water-grass N.Irel., biolar Irel., biolaire Gaelic, berwr Welsh, beler Cornish, Breton, berle French, berro Spanish), bilder(s) Irel., e.Anglia, brook-lime Berwick (see Veronica beccabunga), rib e.Anglia (see Plantago major)

Nepeta cataria


nep, nep-in-hedge n.Cy., York., e.Anglia, nip e.Anglia, Suff., catnip (-), cat-mint Nhb., n.Cy., cat’s foot Nhb., n.Cy., dog-mint s.Pemb.

Nerium oleander

flowering-withy Berk.


Nigella damascena


love-in-a-mist (-), love-entangle Corn., love-entangled Devon, love-in-a-puzzle (-), seven-years-puzzle Som., Devon, lady-in-the-shade Som., jack-in-prison n.Linc., Sussex, devil-in-the-bush Glouc., Kent, Sussex, Wilt., w.Som., bishop’s wort Cumb.

Nuphar lutea

Yellow Water-lily

yellow-dock w.York. (attributed to “Rumex acetosella” – which is not yellow), water-golland ne.York., brandy-bottle York., Berk., e.Anglia, Nrf., Sussex, Wilt. (from the shape of the seed pods), butter-pumps Dorset (the seed vessels), batter-dock Ches. (attributed to “Potamogeton natans”), clote e.Anglia, I.W., Wilt., Dor., Som., Devon (see Burdock), lily-can Perth, Fife, patta-pans Wor.,  app. 2.15, churn Nhp., Oxf.

Nymphaea alba

White Water-lily

water-lily w.Dorset, Devon (attributed to Iris pseudacorus, Ranunculus aquatilis, Cardamine pratensis and Caltha palustris), lily Wilt. (attributed to Ranunculus aquatilis), water-docken Cumb. (attributed to Petasites vulgaris), water-bells n.Cy., platter(-dock) Ches., Nhp., Essex, Som., Devon (attributed to Potamogeton), plateau, platiau (-), cf. regional French plateau, platê, plat-plat “water lily”, on account of its wide leaves lying flat of the surface of the water; flatter-dock, floating dock Ches. (West Flemish dokke “water lily”), bobbins n.Berw., can-leaf Leic., Wor., Not., candock Not., War., Wor., pandock War. (cf. Dan. ækande), alau Corn., eadocca AS, edokke OE (= water-dock)

Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea

flatter-dock Ches. (also attributed erroneously to Polygonum amphibium and Potamogeton natans)

White Water Lily, Yellow Water Lily

Odontites lutea

hen-gors Ches.

Yellow Odontites

Odontites verna

hen-gorse Ches., poor-robin Nhb., cock’s-comb w. York.

Red Bartsia

Oenanthe crocata

Hemlock Water-dropwort

bullers, bylders, belder e.Anglia, bilder(s) I.Wight, Devon., Corn., beller, biller Devon (also: the flowers of any umbelliferous plant) beldrum, bildrum Pembroke  app. 2.1; cow-bane w.York., bendock Kent (= bane-dock, from its poisonous quality, OE bana, OFrisian bona “murderer”, Danish, Swedish bane “death, murder”) ded-man’s creesh Dmf., deathin Scot. (attributed to O. aquatica), water-hemlock Cumb., Sussex, water-sapwort Frf., five-fingered root Pemb., Glamorgan

Oenanthe pimpinelloides

earthnut Hamp. (see Bunium bulbocastanum), pig-nut Essex (small tubers)

Corky-fruited Water-dropwort

Omalotheca sylvatica

owl’s crown e.Anglia, Nrf., cudweed

Heath Cudweed

Onobrychis viciifolia


everlasting-grass Oxf., sainfoin English, from French sainfoin literally “healthy hay”, being much appreciate by domestic animals, french-grass Hamp., Wilt.

Ononis natrix

Yellow Rest-harrow

1. cammock Wor., Berw., Buck., Hert., Sussex., Hamp., I. Wight, Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn.; commock Scot., cammack Devon, cammick Berw., I. Wight., Dorset, cammic Corn., kemmick, kamics, karmics Som.

2. cammock “a name given to almost any plant with a yellow flower, e.g. Hypericum perforatum, Senecio jacobae, Pulicaria dysenterica, Lotus corniculatus” ð app. 1.17

Ononis spinosa

Spiny Rest-harrow

bomariskie Scot., cummock Scot. (see Ononis natrix), gorse Bdf.  app. 2.14; hen-gorse n.Cy., Ches., Midl., pink-flowered gorse War., whin Nhp., stinking-tommy Nhb., horse’s breath Wor., rassle Suff. (of plants: to rassle is to spread at the roots and form suckers; to creep irregularly as ivy or vines), rustburn n.Cy., York., lewte Som., land-whin e.Anglia, e.Suff., petty-whin n.York., Ches. (a thorny plant; = pettish; pet = temper), rest-harrow (-), lickor-stick Rxb., Nhb., w.York., spanish-root Cumb., wild licorie Cld., wild liquorice n.York. (“the root [of O. arvensis] is eaten by children as a substitute for liquorice-root of the apothecary”)

Onopordon acanthium

rough-dashle, row-dashl nw.Devon, pig-leaves York., n.Cy.,  app. 2.9.1; Queen Mary’s thistle Nhp.

Scotch Thistle

Ophioglossum vulgatum

adders spear Surrey, Sussex, adder’s tongue Ches., Devon, edder’s tongue Cumb., adder’s grass Nhb., cock’s-comb Roxb.

Common Adder’s-tongue

Ophrys apifera

Bee Orchid

bee-flower Kent, I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, honey-flower Som., Kent, dumbledore Surrey, fly-flowers Glouc. (also attributed to Prunella vulgaris), orchey Devon

Orchis insectifera

fly-flowers Glouc. (also attributed to Prunella vulgaris), orchey Devon

Fly Orchid

Orchis mascula

Early Purple Orchid

cock-flowers Hamp., geuky-flower Devon (cuckoo-), johnny-cocks Dorset, cock’s kames Nhb. (comb), cuckoo Rutland, Buck., Hert., e.Anglia., Devon, cuckoo-pint Hunt., n.Buck., cuckoo-flower Hert., e.Anglia, Essex, Hamp., Devon, cuckoo-buds Nhb.  app. 2.3

adam-and-eve York., Lanc., I.Man, Nhp. (the tubers), Som., Devon, Corn. “the dark flower-spikes represent Adam, and the pale ones Eve”, Cain-and-Abel Scot., Nhb., Durham, York., hen-kaims Nhb., hen’s karmes Nhb., kettle-cap I.Wight, kettle-case s.Cy., I.Wight, red-butcher Kent., bloody-butcher w.Wor., Shrop., Hrf., bloody-fingers Glouc., fried-candlesticks Dorset, long-purple Sussex., w.Som., Devon, priest’s pintel Cumb., Ches., War., underground-shepherd Wilt., jessamine War., cowslip Rutland, cowerslop Shrop. (= cow’s lip), bog-hyacinth Kircud. (= prob. O. palustris), king, king’s finger Leic., War., Buck., Nhp., s.Linc., king-fisher War. (also O. morio); greggle Dorset, gramfer-greygles Dorset (see Scilla nutans), red gramfer-gregors Dorset, gramfer-friddle-goosey-gander Wilt., giddy-gander I.Wight, Dorset, goosey-gander Dorset, goosey-ganders Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., Dorset, gosling Wilt., gandigoslings, dandygoslings Wilt. (also Dactylorhiza maculata), kite-leg, kite’s leg Kent, kite-pan Wilt. (also D. maculata), lady-fingers, ladies’ fingers War., Buck., Kent., w.Som., soldier’s jacket Dorset, gethsemane Ches. (also attributed to Arum), gusset Dorset (prob. a name for Arum; French gousset “pocket”), adder’s grass Nhb., Ches., adder’s flower Hamp. = Cuckoo Pint; aaron’s beard Berw., cling-finger Oxf. (?)

Orchis militaris

soldier, soldier-blower Dorset

Military Odchid

Orchis morio

Green-winged Ochid

bleeding-willow s.Berw., king, king’s finger Leic., War., Buck., Nhp., s.Linc., king-fisher War., bloody man’s fingers Ches., crow-toes Som., fool’s stones Ork., parson’s nose Devon, ramson Devon, ram’s horns, ram’s horn orchis Sussex (see Allium ursinum)

Orchis purpurea

lady-orchis, old-woman’s orchis Kent

Lady Orchid

Oreopteris limbosperma

hay-scent Cumb., heath shield-fern Edinb.

Lemon-scented Fern

Origanum vulgare


organy Wor., Hrf., Hamp., Wilt., Devon, organ Wor., Wilt., Devon (also attributed to Mentha pulegium by confusion), argan n.Devon, orgin Dor., Devon, Corn., pot-marjoram w.York.

Ornithogalum pyrenaicum

Bath Asparagus

asparagus Som. (the young flower-scapes), wild asparagus Wilt., bath-asparagus, French asparagus, french-grass Som., Prussian asparagus (-)

Ornithogalum umbellatum

Star of Bethlehem

jack-go-to-bed-at-noon Oxf., betty-go-to-bed-at-noon, john-that-goes-to-bed-at-noon Shrop., wake-at-noon I.Wight, Wilt., nap-at-noon Shrop., twelve o’clock Oxf., w.Som., six-o’clock(‘s) flower Nhp., Buck., Midl., six-o’clock sleepers sw.Linc., sleeping-dick Lanc., peep-o’day Shrop., sun-flower Devon, star-flower Buck., morning-star Hamp., star-and-garters Wilt., snow-flake Devon

Orobanche minor

devil’s root Kent, broomrape (-)

Common Broomrape

Osmunda regalis

Royal Fern

king-fern Limerick, Kerry, Ches., Devon, king-of-the-ferns Devon, tree-fern Wales, bog-onion Irel., Cumb. (?)

Oxalis acetosella

Wood sorrel, Shamrock

sour-grass York., Linc., Nrf., Devon, sour-leek(s), sour-lick Rxb., N.Irel., Antrim, sour-sab(s), sour-zag Devon, Corn., sourock, sourack, sourick Irel., Scot., Caith., Banff, Fife, soorag, sheep-soorag Caith., soorak Shetl. Ork., soorik Shetl., sour’k N.Irel., surrock Lanark (see also Rumex acetosa), sookie-sorrach Inverness, wood-sorrel (-), wood-sour n.York., cuckoo-sorrel s.Scot.; Fermaganagh, cuckoo’s-sorrow Hamp. (both loc. attributed to Rumex acetosa), cuckoo’s sour Shrop.

cuckoo-flower ne.York., Not., s.Buck., gowk’s clover Nhb., cuckoo’s clover Armagl, cuckoo(‘s)-meat Nhb., sw.Scot., e.Sussex, s.Buck., Glouc., n.York., e.Lanc., Ches., War., Shrop., gowk’s meat Scot., Nhb., cuckoo’s victuals Glouc., s.Buck. (also attributed to Geranium robertianum and Stellaria holostea), cuckoo’s bread Cumb., cuckoo-bread Cumb., Ches. (attributed to Rumex acetosa), Kent (attributed to Cardamine pratensis), Devon, cheese-and-bread Scotland, Lakel. War., York., cuckoo-bread-and-cheese Cumb., ne.Lanc., Glouc., Ches., Shrop., w.Wor., nw.Devon, cuckoo-cheese, cuckoo-cheese-and-bread Devon, Cumb., bird-and-cheese Lanc., Ches., Devon, bird’s bread-and-chese Cumb., Devon god-amighty’s bread-and-cheese w.Som., rabbit’s food Lanc., rabbit’s meat Devon, hare’s meat Corn.

green-sorrel Buck., green-sauce e.York, w.York., Lanc., Ches., Midl., Derby, Not., Linc., Leic., War., Glouc., Devon, Corn., green snob War., heart Nhb. (from the shape of the leaf lobes), saint-mawe’s clover Corn., wild clover se.Linc., laverocks York., lavarocks e.York., three-leaved laverocks York., shamrock Irel., king’s finger Buck.

Paeonia, cultivars


peony Irel., Scot., Irel., peony-rose N.Irel., Antrim, Tyrone, Scot., Ayr., Lothian, peenie Scot., peeny Glouc., pinny Som., piney Antrim, War., Glouc., I.Wight, Som., Devon, Corn., piny Glouc., Oxf., Kent, Dorset, w.Som., piony Ches., Hrf., Devon, pie-nanny n.York., piona Ayr., piano N.Irel., pyanno Tyrone, peannot Ches., pyanot w.York., Lanc., Linc., pynat w.York., pianet, pianet(-flower) Lakel., York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Shrop., piannet Cumb., s.Ches, pyannet w.York, nan-pie York., peannot Lakel., piannot Ches., pyanot w.York., Lanc., n.Linc., pynat w.York., piona-rose, peenie-rose Scot., Loth., speengie-rose Aberdeen, Perth, Fife (OFrench peonie)  app. 1.18; sheep-shearing rose Wor., posy Wilt. (also “a bunch of flowers”)

Panax ginseng

all-heal, clown’s all-heal, clown’s woundwort (in herbals)


Panicum miliaceum ?

penny-grass Hert., Linc. (for Panicum sp.)

Common Millet

Papaver orientale

french-puppy sw.Scot.

Oriental Poppy

Papaver rhoeas

Common Poppy

pope Nhb., Glouc., Oxf., Kent, popy Glouc., Kent, poppet War., popple Cumb., York. (dial. French poupi, papou, pavot, north Italian papavera), corn-poppy Corn., poison-poppy n.Buck.

coprose Irel., Scot., Nhb., York., e.Anglia, cuprose, cup-rose e.Anglia, n.Cy., n.York., cock-rose Scot., ne. York., Scot., cuck-rose War., copper-rose e.Anglia, Nrf., copperoze Suff., copperass York., copprouse Wxf. (French coupe-rose, in Languedoc cap rose meaning “red head” and French couperosé “red” (from Greek kupros “iron sulfate”).

red-weed Berk., Buck., Hert., e.Anglia, Nrf., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., red-petticoat Kent, Wilt., ridweed I.W.

thunderbolt, thunder-ball War., thunderbowl Shrop., thunderbowles (-), thunder-cup Nhb., thunder-flower s.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Wilt., Dorset (on account of its scarlet flower), lightning (-), devil’s tongue Corn., firepflant (-), fire-flout Nhb., wild-fire Moray, Kirc., soldier Nhp., Nrf., Wilt.

head-wark York., Derby, n.Cy., heedache e.Anglia, headache Irel., Cumb. (here also attributed to Cardamine pratensis and Stellaria holostea), York., Ches., Derby, Not., Linc., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., e.Anglia, Sussex, Hamp., headacher Nhp., yed-ache s.Ches., yeddock Not. (its smell is believed to cause headaches), ear-aches Derby, Not., blind-eyes, blindy buffs, corn-rose, cockens, cock’s head, cock’s comb (-), blind-eyes Nhp., Berw., blind-man Wilt., blindy-buffs York., wild maws Derby, collinhood Lothian, Roxb., canker, canker-rose e.Anglia, Kent, Devon (see Galls), hog-weed e.Anglia, gye Suff. (see Ranunculus arvensis)

Parentucellia viscosa

twiny-leg(s), tweeny-legs Devon, painted cup (-)

Yellow Bartsia

Parietaria officinalis


billy-beatie Irel., pellitory-of-the-wall (-), penalty, penalty-of-the-wall Buck. (tautonyms, corruptions of parietaria itself meaning “of the wall”)

Paris quadrifolia

devil-in-a-bush Perth

Herb Paris

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

red clematis Devon

Virginia Creeper

Pastinaca sativa

Wild Parsnip

pasmet Berk., Surrey, Hamp., Wilt., Som., pasmut Surrey, passment w.Som., pane Dorset, Corn. (French panais), cow-cakes Lothian, Roxb. (for cakes see Umbelliferae: kecks)

Pedicularis palustris

moss-flower Ches., moss-crop w.York. (= moor-), dead-men’s bellows Nhb., red-rattle, louse-wort (-)

Marsh Lousewort

Pedicularis sylvatica

honey-suckle Hamp.


Pentaglottis sempervirens

bird’s eye Som., pheasant’s eye Som., alcanet (borrowing from Spanish alcaneta which is from Arabic al-hinna the henna shrub)

Green Alkanet

Petasites hybridus


keddle-dock Ches., batter-dock Ches., butter-bur Ches., Cambridge (from its large leaves, root bat-, pat- wide; not because it is used for lapping butter), gallon Irel., Ulster, Antrim Down (Gaelic gallan-ma “butter-burr”), umbrella-leaves Scot., eldrin-docken, ell-docken, eldin Nhb., Cumb., poison-rhubarb n.York., bog-rhubarb, bog’s horns Linc., dunnies Hamp., burblek Westm., butter w.York. butter-burr, butter-burn n.Berw., s.Engl., Cumb., see Ranunculus spp., yew Lakel. (?), flatter-bags Lanark (or Tussilago)

Petroselinum crispum

Garden Parsley

persil, parsel Scot., parsil Scot., n.Cy., Westm., York., Lanc., parcel n.Cy., Westm. (French persil)

Petunia x hybrida

peculiar Oxf. (corruption of petunia)


Peucedanum ostruthium

fellon-grass Lakel, Cumb., n.York., fellon-wood Cumb. (used to cure fellon)


Phalaris arundinacea

fescue-grass Glouc., fox-grass w.York.

Reed Canary-grass

Phalaris arundinacea var. picta

Ribbon Grass

silver-grass Nhp., silver-bennet Hert. (attributed to “Calamagrostis argentea”), sparked-grass Wilt., Som., sparked = variegated gardener’s garters Banff, Lanark, Nhb., Staff., gardener’s gartens Scot., Fife, Edinb., gairner’s gertans Caith., tailor’s-garters, tailor-garters Scot., lady’s garters, ladies-garters Nhb., Lakel., w.Som., lady-grass Ches., Shrop., Devon, lady’s laces Nhp., lady’s ribands Shrop., bride’s laces Nhp., love’s laces Shrop., London-lace Shrop., London-grass War., Wor., empty(grass) Irel.: Tipperary, Limerick, Ches., Oxf., empy Irel. (?), see Phragmites

Phalaris canariensis

floss Ork.


Phaseolus coccineus

red-roughs Dorset

Scarlet Runner Bean

Phaseolus vulgaris

Common Bean

bean Scotland, Cumb., Shrop., Surrey, painted-lady War., Wor. (the seeds are variegated)

Philadelphus coronarius

orange-flower tree n.Linc., orange-blossom Devon, roman-jessamine Devon,


Phleum pratense


cat-tail Sussex, rat’s tail grass Ches., dogfoot Cumb., bent Shrop., timothy York., Ches., Linc., s.Cy., Som., timothy-grass w.Som., Devon (after Timothy Hanson, who was the first to recommend it), soldier-feathers Nhp. (?)

Phlox nivalis

Devonshire beauty Glouc.

Trailing Phlox

Phlox paniculata

flox, flock Devon, lady’s wedding e.York., blossom-withy Devon

White Phlox

Phragmites australis

Common Reed

reed Irel., Scot., Engl., rede Dmf., reid I.Wight (rēd), rait Scot., n.Cy. “any tall grass growing in ponds or lakes”, rait Scot., n.Cy., Midl., Leic., War., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., I.Wight, w.Cy., Som., rate w.Wor., rayte, raaut War., raith Hrf., I.Wight, raowt se.Wor., reate Scot., n.Cy., Shrop., rate Worc., reit Scot., n.Cy., Shrop., w.Cy., reits Shrop., ret Midl., Leic., roit Shrop. (attributed to Ranunculus aquatilis, R. fluitans) (Germ. ried “marsh”)

reed-cotton Nrf. (the down from the panicles), pool-reed Som., loch-reed Scot., ditch-reed Shrop., spire-bed, spire-grass, spire Hamp., pool-spear s.Cy. (spiry = tall, long in the stalk), spear-bed Hamp. (a bed of reeds), doudle Scot., Rxb. (the root of which the children make a sort of musical instrument), empty-rods Antrim, bush e.Anglia (a bed of reeds), goss Corn. (Welsh cors “marsh”, Breton cors “reed”), bennel Scot., Irel., Nhb. (see bent, bennet)

Phyllitis scolopendrium


tongue Dorset, fox-tongue Fermanagh, lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue w.Som., e.Sussex, bullock’s tongue Nhb., beef’s tongue Pemb., ox-tongue n.York., hart’s-tongue fern, heart’s-tongue (-), adder’s tongue Dorset, Devon, snake’s tongue, snake-leaves Som., snake-fern Hamp., Wilt., I.Wight, sea-weed fern Surrey, long-leaf Hamp., button-hole e.Sussex, burnt-weed West Meath, sea-weed fern Surrey

Phytolacca acinos

gargut-root e.Anglia, pigeon-berry (-)

American Pokeweed

Picris echioides

langley-beef Hert. (French langue-de-boeuf)

Bristly Oxtongue

Pimpinella saxifraga

bennet Shrop. burnet (-), old-man’s plaything Shrop.

Burnet Saxifrage

Pinguicula vulgaris

Common Butterwort

bog-violet n.Cy., marsh-violet w.York., rot-grass Nhb., Cumb., butter-root York., Devon butterwort (-) (from its viscous leaves), steep-grass Scot., Gall., N.Irel., steep-weed, steep-wort Antrim “so called because the leaves are used to curd milk” (steep = rennet”), yerning-grass n.Cy., earning-grass Lanark (= rennet; the plant is used for curdling milk), clowns Rxb., eccle-grass Ork., white-sincles Hert., bean-weed Hert., sheep-root Roxb. (?); the explanation given in Wright 5: 273 is evidence this name is not that of the Butterwort, a plant that does not grow in ploughed land.

Pinus pinaster

pinaster Nrf.

Maritime Pine

Pinus sylvestris

Scotch Pine

scot n.Linc., w.Som., Gledhow-pine w York. (a locality near Leeds)

The cones: pine-apple Hert., Nhp., War., pie-apple Nhp., berk-apple n.York., purr-apple Nhp., pine-clog (-), cuckoo w.York. (the cone), oyster Devon (the cone), sheep n.York., curl-doddy Scot., Antrim (cone of pine or fir)

The leaves: needle Scot., War., e.Suff. (the leaves), pins-and-needles War., pin-and-needle tree w.York.

bay-lambs York. (the male flowers)

Pisum sativum

Garden Pea

pai nw.Derby, pay Cumb., w.York., Ches., Nhp., Shrop., peea e.York., peigh Lanc., pey York., Lanc., paes se.Wor., peaz Berk., peeaz Cumb., I.Wight, paise War., paeys w.York., peys Angus, pez Dur., Cumb., n.York., pezz Lakel., piz Berw., Wxf., pizz Fife, paisen, paysen, peson Corn., peason n.Linc., Shrop., Hrf., pazen Hrf., peasen w.Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Berk., Suff., Hamp., Wilt., e.Som., Corn., pesen Nhb., peeazen I.Wight, peazen Hrf., Berk., n.Wilt., pizzen Wxf.

peigh-cod Lanc., pey-cod w.York., peascod Scot., Nhb., Westm., York., Lanc., Derby, Linc., Leic., e.Anglia, Devon, codgel-pea Hert., pease-cod Scot., pea-skod w.York., peas-cod e.York., pay-cod Devon, pey-scode Westm., pess-cod e.York., pescod n.Cy. Derby, Leic., e.Anglia, peskad Suff., pesket e.Anglia., peskit Nhb., puskit e.Anglia, pustek eAnglia, Suff. (the pea-pod)

puffin-pea Hert., grey-pea Hert., London, grey-badgers w.York., beaned-eye (a kind of pea), hastings Suff., Sussex, codgel pea Hert. “a kind of pea; also balled beaned-eye”.

Plantago lanceolata

Ribwort Plantain

broad leaf Ches., way-broad-leaf se.Wor., Lanark, way-burn-leaf Lanark, wabran-leaf, wageran-leaf, wabran-leaf, wabert-leaf Scot., wayfron Nhb. (for waybron?), warba-blade Banff, way-broad s.Lanc., Wor., s.Lanc., Wor., way-bread Berw., Rxb., Gall., n.Cy., Nhb., Lanc., Ches., s.Wor., wayside-bread Wilt., great waybrede n.Cy. (from its broad leaves, and its growing along ways), way-berry Ches., traveller’s foot War., lamb’s foot Derby.

kemp Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Lothian, Rxb., Slk., Berw. (Norw. dial. kempe, kjempe “Plantago media” – Wright), plant Wor., Devon, plantany Buck., planted Devon (French plantain), great plantain s.Cy.

cock Irel., N.Irel., ne. Lanc., Dur., Ches., Nhp., Shrop., Suff., Suss., Corn. (the tufted heads), cock-fighters Nhb., Dur., Cumb., cock-grass n. Devon, w. Som., fightee-cocks, fighting-cock Nhb., Ches., Nhp., e.Anglia, Sussex “so named from a game played by children with the stems”, rib-grass Gall., fiddle-strings Wilt. “the ribs when pulled out”, cat-gut Wilt. (the ribs of leaves).

rat-tail(s) sw.Scot., Cumb., Nrf., hard-head w.York., ne.Lanc., Wor., Wilt., Dorset, Devon, Corn., chimney-sweeper Nhp., War. Wilt., s.Devon (the spike), jack-straws York., fechters Scot. (the stems), carl-doddy Scot.: Aberd., Banff (the stalk, see Cannabis), rippling-grass Lanark, canary-seed Hamp., bird-seed Sussex, Wilt., Devon (the heads of), lark’s seed Wilt., baskets Wilt., head-man Perth, lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue Nhb., Shrop., w.Sussex, Hamp., soldier Caith., Lakel., Ches., Not., Som., Devon, tinker-tailor w.Som., cow-grass s.Not., lord-and-ladies Nrf. (?), black-boys Wilt. (? cf. Typha), black-bent Berw. (black-bent is a kind of grass), bent Wilt., e.York (?) (a collective name for grasses). reed-mace (also attributed to the Bulrush but probably a name for the Water Pepper)

Plantago maritima

gibbal Glamorgan (prob. misapplied; see Allium cepa)

Sea Plantain

Plantago media

Hoary Plantain

fire-leaves Ches., Glouc., fire-weed Glouc., lamb’s ear Cumb., lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue Sussex,

Platanthera chlorantha

night-violet Wilt.

Great Butterfly Orchid

Poa trivialis

Rough Meadow-grass

natural-grass s.Scot., n.Cy. (grasses generally, “because they are found in old or ‘natural’ pastures”) (also Poa pratensis), rough-stalked meadow-grass Sussex, roughish meadowgrass Scot., prye Nhb. (see Carex), bird-grass (-)

Polemonium caeruleum

ladder-to-heaven Lanark, poverty Cumb.

Jacob’s Ladder

Polygala calcarea

shepherd’s thyme Wilt. (see Thymus serpyllium)

Chalk Milkwort

Polygala vulgaris

procession-flower n.Cy. (used in processions garland on Rogation Week), sister Waterford

Common Milkwort

Polygonatum multiflorum

Common Solomon’s Seal

Solomon’s seal Devon, jacob’s ladder n.Staff., Wilt., Som., Leic., Berk., e.Anglia, e.Suff., Devon, David’s harp Derby, Linc., Nhp., Shrop., Hunt., lily-of-the-mountain War., wart-plant

Polygonum amphibium

Amphibious Bistort

lake-weed Ches. (attributed to Persicaria and Polygonum hydropiper), willow-grass e.York. (the land form), ground-willow Ches. (the land form), reed-willy Nhb. (land form)

Polygonum aviculare


crab-grass Nrf., e.Anglia, crab-weed Essex, crab’s claw Dorset, from creeping on the ground (attributed to P. persicaria), armstrong Sussex “so called from the difficulty of pulling it up”, devil’s lingels Nhb., iron-grass Hert., stone-weed Hamp., way-grass Kent, finzach Scot.: Banff, ninety-knot Shrop., man-tie w.Som., Devon: Exeter, bird’s tongue n.Cy., pig-grass York., pig-weed Wor., Hamp., pig-rush Shrop. (?), hog-weed e.Anglia, Nfr., Bdf., mat grass Glouc.

Polygonum bistorta


easter-leger Westm., ester-ledges Cumb., easter-magiants Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York, easter-mangiants Cumb., Westm., easter-maygiants, easter mergiants, easter-mungiands Cumb., easter-mentgions Westm., easter-magions, easter-monthgions Nhb., easter-moregiants w.York., easterngiants, eastergiant sw.Cumb.

poor-man’s cabbage s Lanc., meeks Not., red-legs War., Shrop., snake-weed Banff, Edinb., Lanark, Ches., Hamp.,

Polygonum hydropiper

Water-pepper, Pepperwort

pepper-plant n.York., smart-weed Nrf., smart-ass w.Som., Devon, arsesmart Hert. Cumb., Ches., Linc., War., I.Wight, Som., Devon, Linc., Wilt. (also attributed to P. amphibium and P. persicaria), bity-tongue Cumb., bog-ginger s.Pembr.

Polygonum persicaria


red-knees, red-legs Ches. Nrf., w.Cy., red-shank N.Irel., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., York., Lanc., Linc., red-weed Dev., Ches., red-robin Sussex (also attributed to P. aviculare), black-stripe Hamp., from its black-striped leaves (attributed to P. aviculare)

pink-weed n.York. (attributed to Polygonum aviculare), pinch-weed Nhp., Oxf. (stems are reddish, flowers are pink), willow-weed York., Midl, s.Not. (willow-like leaves), curage, culerage, killridge (Cotgrave), lamb’s tongues Devon, pig-grass Linc., useless Scot., alice Nrf., Yarmouth (also attributed to other species), saucy-alice Nrf., lovers’ pride Sussex (?)

Polygonum persicaria


Polypodiaceae, collective names

fern Irel., Scot., England, farn Glouc., fearn Cumb., n.Linc., fiern Hrf., vern Hamp., viern w.Som.  app. 3.10; devil’s brushes Midl.

Ferns, collective names

Polypodium vulgare

Common Polypody

parsley-fern Devon (also Polypodium cambricum), wood-fern Nrf., golden-locks Hrf., golden-maidenhair Hrf., Kent, golden-polypody Kent, adder’s fern Hamp., adder’s meat (?) Som.

Polystichum aculeatum

pheasant’s tail Cumb.

Hard Shield Fern

Polystichum setiferum

curly-fern Dorset, Wildenow’s fern Dorset (bookish, “so named after Willdenow, a botanist”

Soft Shield Fern



poplain Shrop., Hrf., w.Cy., popple(-tree) Rutland, e.Anglia., Nrf., Suff., Corn., poople e.Anglia  app. 3.11; red-rag Ches.

Populus “fastigiatus”

water-poplar Som., lady-poplar Ches.

Poplar, cultivar

Populus alba

White Poplar

white-wood Hert., white-back e.Anglia, Nrf. (white underside of leaves), abbey Som., dutch-arbel Hert., ebble e.Anglia, abele tree ð app. 1.1, silver-poplar Som.

Populus nigra

Black Poplar

black-poplar w.Som., water-poplar w.Som., willow-poplar Cumb., old English poplar Suff., cat-foot poplar s. Lanc. (a name used by cabinet-maker; refers to the dark knots in the wood), cotton-tree Suff. (from its downy inflorescence), devil’s fingers Nhp. (the catkins)

Populus tremula


asp Irel., Nhb., Cumb., York., Ches., War., Wor., Hrf., Wilt., Som., esp n.Irel., Nhb., Cumb., w.York. aspen Hert. (applied to Populus alba) (Dutch esp, Dan., Sw. asp, Germ. aspe), snapsen I.Wight, quaking esp N.Irel., quaking-ash Irel., Scot., old-wives’ tongues Rxb., woman’s tongue Berk. (from the ceaseless movement of the leaves), pipple I.Wight, Som., Devon, piplin Som., pippler Devon  app. 3.11; ebble e.Anglia (see P. alba)

Potamogeton crispus

water-caltrops, small frog’s lettuce Cumb.

Curled Pondweed

Potamogeton natans

fish-leaves War., Suff.

Broad-leaved Pondweed

Potamogeton sp.

Pondweed sp.

ruckles Staff. (ruckle = a great number), pickerel-weed e.Anglia, Suff. (also Ranunculus aquatilis), water-tangle Surr. “a plant growing with sedges and water-lilies” (prob. Ranunculus aquatilis or Potamogeton)

Potentilla anserina


silverweed (-), silver-feather Oxf., silver-fern., silver-grass Wilt., midsummer-silver Surrey, fair-days Nhb., fair-grass Scot., moor Caith., York., moor-grass w.York., moor-corn Ulster, moss-crop Scot., moss-corns Selk., mash-corns, mashy-corns Irel. “the roots” (prob. moss- = moor), bog-strawberry I. Man, tansy n.York., Nhp., wild tansy Cumb., Nhp., Berk., dog-tansy Scot., buttercup s.Berw., blithran Irel. (Gael. briosglan), fern buttercup Wilt., goose-grass Glouc., Linc., York., Nhb., n&e.Cy., Hutingdon, goose-tansy n.Cy., Midl., Cumb., Linc., Nhp., Nrf., marsh-corns Irel., traveller’s ease War., cow-berry Scot. (?)

Potentilla erecta


star-flower Wilt., five-fingers Suff., sheep’s knapperty, sheep’s naperty N.Ire., strawberry-plant n.Linc., Devon, snake’s head Wilt., blood-root Nhb., flesh-and-blood Nhb., Haddington

Potentilla reptans

Creeping Cinquefoil

five-leaved grass s.Not., n.Linc., War., Wor., s.Buck., Oxf., five-fingers Suff., Essex, e.Anglia, Suff. (also attributed to Primula), five-finger-jack Suff. five-finger blossom Suff., five-finger(ed) grass Glouc., I.Wight, golden-blossom Devon

Potentilla sterilis

crazy Wor.: on the Avon

Barren Strawberry

Primula “polyanthus” (a cultivar hybrid)

Primrose, cultivated hybrid

polly-andrews Glouc., Wilt., polly-ann (corruption of polyanthus), spring-flower Oxf., Hamp., Wilt., jack-in-the-green Hamp., Wilt., pug-in-a-primmel Nhp., Oxf., Buck.

Primula auricula


bazier Lanc., e.Anglia, Devon, baisier Devon, basier Lanc., bear’s ears Scot., York., Derby, Glouc., e.Anglia, bore’s ears, boar’s ears n.Scot., cat’s lugs Roxb. (lug = ear), dusty-miller Caith., Ayr., Lothian, Nhb., Westm., n.York.

Primula elatior


cowslip Hert., Midl., e.Anglia, Kent, Dorset, Devon (attributed to Ranunculus acris), carslope w.York. (= cow’s lip; cf. oxlip), bull-slop Ches., bedlam cowslip Nhp. (bedlam = Bethlehem), candlestick Lakel., lady-candlestick Cumb., lady’s candlestick n.Cy., summer-locks n.York., King-Charles in-the-oak Ches., Glouc., lady-fingers York., Nrf., Suff., shoes-and-stockings Nhp., e.Anglia, hens-and-chickens Sussex, hose-in-hose Glouc. (also P. acaulis)

Primula farinosa

bird-een Cumb., bird’s eye York., bog-bean n.York. (= Menyanthes), marfield n.York. (see Caltha palustris)

Birdseye Primrose

Primula veris


tosty, tisty-tosty Wilt., creivel (-), crewel Wilt., Som., Dorset, Devon, cruel Devon (Engl. dial. creevel, crewel “fine worsted”, ME crul “curly”, MDutch crul “crispus”) hodrod, oddrod, holrod Dorset, cow-strippling n.Cy., Cumb., Westm., York., cow-stropple n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., cow-struplin Cumb., cow’s mouth Lothian, cow-flop Devon, paigle n.Cy., York., Ches, Linc., Nhp., Pemb., Bdf., Hert., Midl., Huntingdon, e.Anglia., Suff., Kent, Dorset, paagle, peggle Essex, pagil, pegle Kent, pagle Hert., e.Anglia, paugle s.Pemb., peagle Linc., Bdf., Surrey, peggal Hert., e.Anglia, cow-paigle, cow-peggle Hert., herb-peter Ches., Saint-Peter’s herb n.York., horse-buckle Kent, fairy-cups Dur., lady-keys Wilt., Kent, cove-keys Kent, covey-keys, cover-keys, culverkeys Kent (the name of various plants which suggest a bunch of keys” – Wright), racconals Ches.: Sutton near Frodsham (also P. elatior), cowslip (= cow’s lip; see P. elatior)

Primula vulgaris


primrose Scot., York., Lanc., Ches., Not., Shrop., Hrf., Hamp., War., Wor., Glouc., I.Wight, Wilt., Som., Devon (plural primrosen), pirmrose w.Som., purmrose e.Devon, primmie-rose, primmy-rose Wor., Glouc., pimerose Ches., pimmerose Ches., Hrf., pimmirose Shrop, pumrose Dmf., buckie-faulie, buckie-faalie Caith., summer-blossom s.Pemb., simmerin n.York: Coverdale, spink Perth, may-spink Rnf. (= may’s pink), jack-in-green-doublet Staff. “a variety in which the calyx is transformed in leaves”, jack-in-the-green Wilt., Dorset (a variety), boy Wilt., jack-in-the-box Nrf., Kent, lady’s frills Staff. (a variety), butter-rose n.Devon (see Ranunculus spp.)

Prunella vulgaris


heart-of-the-earth, heart-of-the-hearth Rxb., Nhb., e.Anglia, all-heal n.York, w.Ches., touch-and-heal N.Irel., prince’s feather Nhb., e.Anglia, black-man’s flower w.York., Framlington-clover Nhb. (prevalent near Long Framlington), wood-sage Ulster, pickle Essex, prunell, brunel (-)

Prunus amygdalus

almond-nut Corn.


Prunus armeniaca

abricock Ches., Som., apricock n.Cy., Lanc., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Shrop., Hrf., Som.


Prunus avium

Wild cherry

geen Sussex, n.Cy., Scot., Inverness, Aberdeen, Perth, Argyll, Berw., Gall., gean Scot., Nhp., Cumb., Sussex (French guine, guigne > app. 1.14, gascoigne, gasken Kent, gaskin Scot., Sussex (i.e. “from Gascony”, France), crab-cherry n.Buck., red-merry Hamp. (French merisier), black-merry Hamp., white merry Ches. (a dwarf variety), hinney-cherry Dmf., Hert., Dmf. (a variety; = honey-), carrons Hert., mazzard Irel., Wor., Glouc., Kent, Wilt., Som., Devon., Corn., massard Corn., mazard Linc., Glouc., Devon, mazer Devon, brandy-mazzard Devon, scroggs Berw., shir n.Cy., cherry-odds w.Som. (cherry stones)

Prunus cerasus

mazzard(-cherry) Wor., Glouc., Devon (see Prunus avium)

Sour Cherry

Prunus domestica

Cultivated Plum

damas Scot., Ches., Staff., War., dammas Staff., damasee Scot., damasis Ches., damascene n.Cy., York., Not. “distinct from the damson”, damson Scot., Irel., Nrf., dawmson N.Irel., damsel Scot., Irel, Nhb., York., Lanc., Ches., Som., Devon “The term is vaguely applied to the fruit of Prunus spinosa, and other larger species, both black and yellow” – Wright), damsil e.York., e.Lanc., damzil Devon, damsdil n, e&m.York., damascene n.Cy., York., Not. > app. 1.17; damask-plum, plume, prune (-), pruant Sussex (plum), honey-crach e.Anglia Varieties of plums: barley-plum Westm. “a dark purple plum”, violet plum Linc., muscle-plum Berk., jacob s.Lanc., lammas-plum Shrop. (a dark purple plum ripening about Lammas Day)

Prunus domestica var. insititia

Wild Plum

crisling, crislin, cruslin, kerslin w.Som., kesling Devon, christling Dorset, Som. Devon, cristen Dorset, custin Som., crystals Devon, Corn., skeg I.Man, Nhp., War., Oxf., Kent, scad Linc., Kent., Sussex, skad Kent, slone Devon, wild plum, wild damson n.York., horse-plum Ches., horse-clog Not., horse-gogs Westm., York., horse-jags York., horse-jug Ches.  app. 2.4; hedge-pigs Glouc.  app. 2.9.1; wind-sour (-) (= prob. whin-), davison Som. “a species of wild plum superior to the bullin” (bullace), cracks Pemb., crex Cumb. (French: Picardie crèque, MHG krieche), n-ack Wor. (same word as in hack-berry, see Prunus padus)

Prunus laurocerasus

laurer Corn.

Cherry Laurel

Prunus padus

Bird Cherry

hag-berry Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., e.Cy., Hamp., hog-berries Hamp., hack-berry Scot., Nhb., e.Cy., Hamp., heck-berry n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., heg-berry Nhb., Cumb., Westm., egg-berry Cumb., York., eck-berry Cumb., hic-berry Westm. hacker-berry Nhb. (related to hedge, see Crataegus laevigata), mazzard Limerick (see Prunus avium), polstead-cherry Suff. “perhaps named as being plentiful at the village of Polstead”

Prunus persica var. nectarina

nepkin Som.,


Prunus spinosa


bullace Scot., England, bollus m. York., boluce Wor., bullas m. York., w.York., Oxf., bullasen Staff., bullers Ches., bullases Berk., bullies n.Linc., Nhp., Hert., bulloe Lanc., bully w.York., sw. Linc., Not., bullen Som., bullhorn Devon, bullin(s) Shrop., Som., nw. Devon, bullum(s) Devon, Corn., bullister Scot., Irel., Cumb. (Gaelic bulaisteir) [dial. French (Switzerland) belosse, Welsh bwlas, Breton bolos, dial. Italian bulloi]  app. 1.1, bully-blow, bully-flower sw. Linc. (the blossoms)

sloe Scot., England, Scot., sloe-thorn Ayr., sloo Dorset, slew Som., slue Wilt., sluie n.Linc., slaa w.York., slae Scot., Nhb., Cumb., slae-thorn Perth, Rnf., Berw., slag Oxf., slaigh, slath Lanc., sla Scot., w.York., slay Nhb., slaya ne.Lanc., slea Cumb., Westm., York., sleaa Cumb., sleah Dur., sleawgh s.Lanc., slee Cumb., Westm., sleea n.York., n.Lanc., sleeah w.Dur., e.York., sleya ne.Lanc., sleggh e.Lanc.

pick Wilt., hedge-picks, hedge-peeks Hamp., Wilt., Som., Corn., hedge-spikes, hedge-specks, hedge-speaks Glouc., Wilt., speak Glouc.  app. 2.9.2; hedge-pegs Berk., Wilt., Hamp., heg-peg-bushes Glouc., hedge-pigs Glouc., pig-i’ the-hedge Hamp.  app. 2.9.1

snag(-bush) s.Cy., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, e.Som., winter-kecksies Hamp., I.Wight, winter-peck, winter-pick Suss., Hamp., cracker s.Pemb., winter-crack w.York., n.Linc., Nhp., cracks Pemb., crex Cumb. (French: Picardie crèque, Middle High Germ. krieche “bullace”), wine-tree Wigtown, wine-sour ne.Lanc. (perhaps for “whin”)

Prunus virginiana

cherry-apple Kent


Pteridium aquilinum


fern w.York., n.Linc., Glouc., Hamp., ern-fern Scot., oak-fern Nrf., w.Som., thane Scot., Westm., York., robinhood’s men, robinhood’s sheep n.Linc., adder’s spit, adder-spit Sussex, adder’s tongue Berk.

Pulicaria dysenterica

mare’s fat e.Anglia, Nrf.

Common Fleabane

Pulmonaria officinalis

Common Lungwort

lung-wort Glouc., Hamp., shop-lungwort Lanark (transl. of scient. name), lungs-of-oak Hamp. (used as a remedy for consumption), Jerusalem-cowslip Cumb., Ches., Glouc., Oxf., Buck., Nrf., Jerusalem-seeds w.Som., sage-of-Jerusalem Cumb., children of Israel Dorset, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Linc. (see Common Comfrey).

thunder-and-lightning Banff., soldier-and-his-wife I.Wight, soldiers-and-sailors Suff. (two-colour flower), adam-and-eve Cumb., Westm., Hamp. “from the two-coloured flowers”, Joseph-and-Mary Hamp., Wilt. (on account of its red and blue flowers)

Virgin-Mary Lakel., Hamp., Corn., Virginia-stock (-), Virgin-Mary cowslip w.Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Virgin-Mary’s honeysuckle Ches., Shrop: Welshampton, Virgin-Mary’s milkdrops Wilt., Monmouth, Virgin-Mary’s tears Dorset, spotted-Mary Radnor (for Mary, see Sylibum marianum)

Joseph’s walking-stick Hamp. (= Thapsus ?), Joseph’s ladder Midland, bottle-of-all-sorts Cumb., beggar’s basket Ches., umfrey Derby, lady’s milk-sile Ches., bedlam cowslip Oxf. (bedlam = Bethlehem), lady’s pincushion w.York., Ches., snake-flower Hamp.

Pulsatilla vulgaris

Common Pasque Flower

easter-flower Dorset. (attributed to Anemone nemorosa), paste-flower (for Pâques ? cf. French fleur de Pâques), flau flower (literature XVII cent.), Coventry-bells Cumb., lady’s nightcap Hrf., Glouc. (attributed to Anemone nemorosa), lady’s-petticoat Wilt., granny’s nightcap War., Wilt. (attributed to Anemone nemorosa), dane’s blood n.Hert., Cumb., dane-flower Cumb. (see Sambucus ebulus)

Punica granatum

pimgenet e.Anglia


Pyracantha coccinea

Christ’s thorn Ches., w.York., Egyptian-thorn Ches.


Pyrola minor

wood-lily Buck.

Common Wintergreen


oaks, collective names

eike n.Cy., York., aac n.York., n.Cy., aäk m.York., w.York., aik Irel.: Down; Scot., Gall., Nhb., Dur., York., ak ne.York. (pron. yak), auk m.York (aok), hawk-tree Berw., eac, eke n.Cy., eak n.Cy., m.York., eake n.York., oche n.York., whoke Derby, woak w.York., Glouc., Dorset, wock Som., woek e.Som., wok w.York., woke Hamp., wuck e.Som., wuk Shrop., yaak Cumb., yack n.Cy., Westm., York., yak n.Cy., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., yeäck ne.Lanc., yeck Nhb., dur., Cumb., yek Nhb, Lakel., yik Cumb. (Dutch eik, Dan. eeg, eg, Swedish ek, AS ác, ME ook), tom-paine w.York., Herefordshire-weeds Hrf., flittern Hamp. (oak sapling).

Names for “acorn”: acorn Ches., War., Shrop., Hrf., Berk., Surrey, Hamp., Wil., ackern War., yacorn, atchorn Hrf., n-ackerel Nhp., grain Hert., oak-atchern Ches., oak-berry York., mass Shrop., Wilt., Som., Devon, mess w.Devon, maas s.Devon, mace Som., mask Shrop., Wilt., Devon, mast England “the fruit of oak, beech, chesnut and other forest-trees”, oak-mast, oak-mass Devon, mastick Som.

Quercus ilex

everlasting-oak Suff., knapp-tree Sussex, holm-oak, holm

Evergreen Oak

Quercus petraea

white oak Hamp., durmast-oak (-), maiden-oak Hamp.

Durmast Oak

Quercus robur

Pedunculate Oak

girl’s oak Ches. (with reddish leaves), boy’s oak Ches. (with green leaves), drale Hamp. (the flower)

Rumex crispus, Rumex obtusifolius

Curled Dock

dock Wilt., docken Scot., Irel., n.Cy. dockan Scot., N.Irel., Nhb., w.York., dockin n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., Lanc., Linc., dockon w.York., doken Fife (plants with large leaves like water-lilies etc.), cushy-coos Nhb. (the seeding stems) cushie-cow n.Cy., Nhb. (cush is a call to cows, and cushies means sweetmeats)”, doodykye Nhb. (Rumex sp.)

Ranunculus aconitifolius

white bachelor button Ayr.

Aconite-leaved Buttercup

Ranunculus acris

Meadow Buttercup

crow-flower Midl., n.Staff., Rutland, crow-foot, crow-feet Lanark, Sussex, Hamp., Som., Cumb., n.York., Ches., Glouc., crow-toe Devon crow-pightle Nhp., Bdf., bachelor’s button Cumb., Linc., Leic., Oxf., Midl., yellow bachelor button Ayr., king-cup Devon, Lothian, lodeworte AS, rammes fot AS, clovewort Nhp., cluvthung, cluvwort AS (OE clufwyrt “batrachium”), ache (-) butter-creeses, goldy-knob, king’s-knob  app. 2.2

Ranunculus aquatilis or R. fluitans

Water Crowfoot

eel-bed Nhb., Roxbury, eel-ware Nhb., eelweed Cumb., white crowfoot Shrop., sniggle Derby, Shrop. “any kind of long, tangled floating water-weed”, tangle-grass se.York., water-tangle Surr. “a plant growing with sedges and water-lilies” (prob. Ranunculus aquatilis or Potamogeton), rate Worc., reits Shrop. (= Phragmites),

Ranunculus arvensis

Corn Crowfoot

corn-buttercup n.York., corn-lily w.York., hunger-weed Glouc., Nrf., starve-acre sw. Linc., Nhp., Oxf., n.Buck., Essex (sign of poor soil).

On account of its spiny seeds: curry-comb, devil’s curry-comb Shrop., devil on-both-sides Dur., War., Buck., jack-o’two sides Shrops., devil-on-all-sides w.York., devil’s coach-wheel Hamp., hellweed York., Aberdeen (see Cuscuta), Sussex, devil’s clays, worry-whee; cog-weed n.York. (its seed has cogs on it), burr-crowfoot w.York., clench Nhb.: Grendon, Dallington, scratch-bur Bdf., crow-pecks Wilt., beggar’s needle Shrop., guy, gye Lanc., e.Angl., Suff., Linc., jack-o’both-sides Not., Leic., jack-o’-two-sides Shrop., jack-weed Oxf., rachin (-), hard-iron Midl.,

Ranunculus bulbosus (?)

cuckoo-buds Nhp., War., cuckoo-bird Nhp., War., Devon, cow-bells War., fair-grass Roxb.

Bulbous Buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser Celandine

yellow-crane Nhp, water-buttercup Wilt., butter plate Nhb. (see Ranunculus spp.), golden-cup Devon, golden-knobs Oxf., golden-guineas Nhp., gilt-cup Wilt., gilty-cup s.Wilt., Dorset, w.Som. (see Ranunculus spp.), king-cup Devon, crain Nhp. (a name also applied to other unrelated species), steep Dmf. “from its acting like rennet” (see Pinguicula vulgaris), crazy Berw., Buck., Wilt. see Ranunculus spp., crow-pightle Bdf. (see Ranunculus spp.), marsh-pilewort Nhp., cow-grass Londonderry, goose-tongue Camarthen, spurrwort, spearwood Devon: Sidbury (?), banewort (?),

Ranunculus hederaceus

water-anemone Wilt. (?), cow-weed Hamp. (?)

Ivy-leaved Crowfoot

Ranunculus lingua

sparrow-weed Londonderry (?)

Great Spearwort

Ranunculus repens

Creeping Buttercup

craw-foot, Scot., n.York., craw-tees Scot., crow’s claws Sussex, Hamp., Essex (attributed to R. arvensis), creeping-crowfoot, creeping-crazy Wor., Glouc., ram’s claws Wilt., Dorset, Som., ram’s clas Dorset, devil’s claws Hamp., I.Wight. (attributed to R. arvensis), devil’s guts Nhb., granny’s threads w.York. (the runners), old-wife’s threads w.York., meg-many-feet Cumb., meg-many-legs Lakel., meg o’many-feet s.Scot., Gall., Nhb., hod-the-rak (-) (hold the rake), tether-toad w.York. (see Fallopia), lantern-leaves w.Cy.

Ranunculus sceleratus

blister plant, Linc. w.York., blister-cup w.York. (also attributed to R. acris), ache Corn. “from its celery-like leaves”

Celery-leaved Crowfoot

Ranunculus spp.

buttercups, collective names

buttercup Wilt., Cumb., w.York., Ches., War., Glouc., Berw., Suff., Sussex, Devon, butter-lump n.York., butter-flower Derby, Hamp., eggs-and-butter Ches., butter-churn War., butter-creeses Berw., butter-daisy s.Berw., butter-rose Devon (names given on account of their yellow flowers)

yellow-cup Buck., Hamp., Wil., I.Wight, yellow-caul, yellow-call, yallow-call I.Wight, yellow-cream Som., yellow-crees(e) s.Buchan, Hert.

gilt-cup Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, gil-cup Wilt., Dorset, Devon, gild-cup Hamp., Som., gilding-cup, gilting-cup Dorset, gilten-cup Som., giltin-cup Som., Devon app. 1.2.1

gold-cup Som., Devon, golden-crap Som., gold-knops Glouc., golden-nob, golden-knobs Oxf.  app. 2.2; gold-weed Hamp., horse-gold Nmp., Hert., joy, joy-gold Essex, wild-gold Langdon Hills, gully-cup Devon, gowan Gall., gollan(d) Nhb., e.York., yellow-gollan, yellow-gorvan, yellow-gowlan Lanart, n.Nhb.  app. 1.2.1

craizey Wilt., crazy Midl., War., Wor., Glouc., Berk., Berw., Hamp., Wilt., Som., Devon, craazy Berk., craisey Wil., craisie Hamp., Dev., craisy s.Wor., craizey Wilt., craze Lanc., creeses Hert., creesy-creesy Glouc., crazy-weed Berk., crazy-bet, crazy-mar, crazy-moir, crazy-more Wilt.

sinners Oxf., dil-cup Hmp, Wilt., Dorset, carlock-cup Som., locker Scot., worry-wheat Shrop.

Raphanus raphanistrum

Wild Radish

rump Oxf., runch Banff., Lothian, Rxb., Nhb., Cumb. (see Sinapis arvensis), white-runch n.York., curlick Hert., white charlock Berk., Essex, warlock Suff. (?), wild mustard s.Scot., n.Cy., wild radish Nhb.

Raphanus sativus

buck Wor. (especially the long-rooted kind), radish app. 1.10

Garden Radish

Reseda luteola

yellow-rocket s.Scot., n.Cy., yellow Nhp., weld ð app. 1.2.1

Weld, Dyer’s Rocket

Rhamnus cathartica

way-thorn Shrop.


Rhinanthus angustifolius

(prob. also R. alectorolophus)

Narrow-leaved Rattle, Greater Yellow Rattle

rattle, rattle-basket Wilt. (also attributed to Erica cinerea), rattle-bags Devon, rattle-box Irel., Shrop., rattle-caps Som., rattle-grass Irel., Hert., rattle-jack n.Linc., Nhp. (here attributed to a kind of wheat), rattle-penny n.Cy., Dorset, yellow-rattle Edinb., Ches., Glouc., rattle-weed Nrf. (here attributed to Pedicularis palustris), rattle-grass I.Wight (attributed to Briza media), rochlis Hrf. (W.Flemish rochel “rattle”- Wright)

shackle, shackle-bags Dorset  app. 4.1.- locust n.Buck. (when shaken produces a crackling sound like that of a locust), fiddle-cases I.Wight., snaffle Kent.

pennies ne.Lanc., nw.Derby, York., pence Nhb., penny-grass Irel., e.York., Lanc., Ches., Nhp., penny-weed Midl., penny-rattle Sussex, penny-pig Gall., hen-penny n.Cy., Nhb., York., hen-penny grass Irel., hen-pen Nhb., Cumb., n.York., I.Wight, horse-pen Cumb.

money Nhp., n.Buck, money-grass Leic., horse- gowk’s shillings Lanark, dog’s siller Scot., gowk’s siller, gowk’s sixpences Nhb.

cock’s comb Shrop., cow-wheat sw.Cumb., husted Ches. “a term applied to the seeds”, shepherd’s purse Cumb. (prob. a name for Capsella), monkey-plant Dorset

Rhododendron, cultivars

roddy Lanc. (shortened form)

garden rhododendron

Rhus typhina

monkey-tree s.Wilt.




curren, corran, corn Nhb., corran-berry Nhb., n.Linc., currant-berry sw.Cumb., w.York, Kent, Dur., kuran w.York., curn N.Irel., n.Cy., York., curn-berry n.Cy., cêan, côan, con m.York.

Ribes nigrum


black-berry Cumb., York., Ches., Linc., Hamp. Wilt., gozell, gorille, gazel, gazelle, gazzle Kent., Sussex, also for the Red Currant (French groseille), squinancy-berry Cumb., Lanc., Essex; from Old French squinancie “quinsy”

Ribes rubrum


gozell, gorille, gazel, gazelle, gazzle Kent., Sussex (French groseille), wine-berry n.Scot., Lakel., Cumb., York. (also Ribes uva-crispa)

Ribes uva-crispa


grozel Scot., grizzle Dmf., grozzle Dmf., groset, grozet, grosset, grosert, grossart Scot., Selk., grozart Ayr., gross-berry York., gooseberry Scot., Lanc., Nhp., War., Berk., Huntingdon, Suffolk, Sussex, I.Wight, Dorset, Som. (French groseille), gooseberry-mackerel Devon “a particular variety of mackerel”; “a sort that come round when gooseberries are in season”; evidently this not the name of a mackerel (fish), but of the gooseberry, the French name of it being groseille maquereau. For mackerel, see  app. 1.5.2; for grozel  app. 2.13

goose-gob Lanc., Derby, güze-gob Devon, golfobs Derby., goblin s.Ches.  app. 2.71; goggles n.Linc., gewgog Staff., Surr., Suff.  app. 2.5, goose-gog n&w.York., Cumb., Ches., Not., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Shrop., Oxf., Berk., Hert., Midl., e.Anglia, Suff., Surrey, Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Som., Devon  app. 2.5

rizzle, rizzard, risart, rizzart, rissle, russel, russel-bush, russle, rustle Scot., rizzle, rizzar Fife, rizar, rizzer, rizzer-berry Ork.  app. 2.13

feabers, fabes e.Anglia, fapes e.Anglia, Suff., feabes n.Cy., Ches., Leic., Suff., feabs York., e.Anglia, feaps Ches., e.Anglia, thapes s.Scot. (here attributed to Ulex europaea and Crataegus laevigata), thyper Scot., York., Ches., e.Anglia, theabes, thebes Nrf., thepes Scot., Nrf., feaberry n.Cy, York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Leic., War., Shrop., e.Anglia, s.Cy., faberry w.York., faeberry Shrop., faiberry Lanc., Shrop., fayberry Lanc., Ches., feberry w.York., Derby, feeberry Ches., Leic. (the fruit)  app. 1.16

berry N.Irel., Durham, Cumb., Lakel., York. Ches., Linc., berry-bush Nhb., berry-tree York. s.Lanc., day-berries, deberries Kent, Devon, day-berries Kent., Devon, kraanberry, kraaneberry Wxf., carr-berry, carberry n.Cy., York., cat-berries Cumb., Westm., wine-berry n.Scot., Lakel., Cumb., York., bush Kent., honey-blob Scot., Antrim (a variety), golden-drop e.Anglia (a variety), knop Cumb., Westm. (“the dried calyx remaining on a gooseberry”, nesp n.e. Lanc. (the calyx)

Richardia aethiopica

aron Roxb.

Arum lily

Robinia pseudacacia

whya-tree York.

False Acacia

Rosa canina

Dog Rose

briar Scot., Irel., England, breear Westm., n.e.York., brare Not., brear w.York., bree n.York., breeor Lanc., breer Scot., n.Engl., brere n.England, brid-breer, bird-briar, brid-rose Ches. (also other prickly shrubs), sweet-breath e.Lanc., sweet-briar Wilt.

buck-breer Antrim, Down, buckie-briar, buckie, buckie-berry Scot., Dmf., n.Irel., Ulster

hedge-spikes Glouc., pig-rose, pig’s roses Devon, pixy-pear s.Hamp., Devon  app. 2.9

dog-breer n.York., rosy-bush Nhb., dog-rose, cat-rose Ches., w.York., cat-whin York., n.Cy., Nhb. (as a name for plants, dog usually refers to spiny, poisonous or obnoxious species)

dike-rose Cumb., n-eddy-grinnel se.Wor., bramble Shrop., cock-bramble Suff.

Names for the hip: hip Scot., Nhb., Lakel., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby., Not., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., dog-hips Scot., Nhb., dog-hippins Aberdeen, hep Nhb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Not., Shrop., Glouc., n.Wilt., hap n.Scot., hyp Lothian, ip Oxf., hep, epp, ep w.York.  app. 2.7.2 hip-briar n.Cy., w.York., Ches., s.Wor., Glouc. hip-rose Glouc., hip-tree Nhb., Glouc., cat-hip, cat-hep Nhb., sw.Linc. (Norw. hjūpa hip)

choop Scot., Nhb., Durham, Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., choup n.Cy., Nhb., Lanc., joop Cumb., jupes Westm., chewp w.York., chowp e & n York., chub m.York. (the hips) (Norwegian dial. kjupa rose-hip) dog-chops, dog-job e.York., cat-jugs Durham, York., catty-jugs York., dog-jugs, dog-jumps n.York., cat-choops sw.Cumb., n.York., dog-choops, dog-chowps York.

haw Dorset, doghaw Munster, haggises Hamp. (the hips, see Crataegus laevigatus), huggun w.York., nipper-nails Ches., dog-berry n.York, Hamp., dog-stemmer’s berries Som.

lawyer Ches., Hrf., Glouc., Brk., e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight, laayer Brk., layur I.Wight, lawer Nrf., layer e.Anglia, Nrf., lay-yer Brk.

red-berries n.York. (the hips), roddin n.Scot. (the berry) (see Sorbus aucuparia)  app. 1.10 soldier Kent (the hip), eglantine “Milton prob. uses this word for the honeysuckle… But it is properly the sweet-briar” Wright 2: 242; French églantine is the rose hip, églantier the wild rose bush.

Various parts: bull-beef Ches. (the young shoots of wild roses and blackberries, frequently eaten by children), tickler Scot., York., Lanc., Shrop., London, Sussex., Hamp., I.Wight, Devon, tickling-tommy Devon “the seeds contained in the hip” (they cause scratching), cow-itch Ches. (the hip seeds cause irritation on skin), lice Rnf. (the hairy seeds causing irritation when they come in contact with te skin), humack Som., hew-mack w.Som. (the stem used for grafting upon)

Rosa pimpinellifolia

fox-rose War.

burnet Rose

Rosa rubiginosa

mugoreen Irel. (the hip),

Sweet Briar

Rosa x versicolor

rose of York and Lancaster w.York.

Rose, cultivar

Rosmarinus officinalis

sweet-Mary Ayre., Linc. old-man e.Sussex


Rubia peregrina

evergreen cliver I.Wight, wild madder

Wild Madder

Rubia tinctorum


Rubus caesius


stone-bramble n.York. (grows in stony places), black-berry-token Wilt., dewberry Sussex, Devon, Corn., jewberry Wilt., Som.

Rubus chamaemorus


knot-berry n&e.Cy., Nhb., knout-berry Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., York., Lanc., e.Cy., cnout-berry Lanc.  app. 2.6; knoop n.Cy., knope, knope-berry, knupe Nhb., noop Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., nupe Caith., nup Dmf. (Norw. dial. nupe, njupe “rose hip”; nop is a rounded head of a flower  app. 2.2)

nob-berry, nobe-berry, nube-berry Scot.  app. 2.2; cloud-berry n.Cy., Staff., York.: Ingleborough, Lanc.: Pendle (“because it grows on top of high mountains enshrouded by clouds all winter”; the name rather apears to be a translation of nube-berry understood as the Latin nubes “cloud”), everocks Scot., averin Banff, Aberd., Perth (Gael. oighreag “cloud-berry” – in Wright), fintock Perth

Rubus fruticosus


bramble, brammles, brummles, bummelkites Cumb., York. he-brimmle Som., Lanc., bramble-berry e.Anglia, bramble-kites Cumb., Westm., brame ne.Linc. Westm., brame-berry Linc., bumble, bummel Cumb., Hamp., Wilt., bummel Hamp., bummle York. (see Bramble), bumble-berry Cumb., Wilt., bumble-kite n.Cy., Nhb., bummel-kite Durham, Westm., York., Hamp., bummely-kite, bummelty-kite Cumb., Westm., bummle-kite Nhb., York., bummlers, bumly Nhb., Cumb. (collective for Rubus)

cock-bramble, cock-brumble e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., hawk-bill bramble e.Anglia. yoe-brimble w.Som.

gatter, gatter-berry, gaiter, gait-gatter Teviot, gatten Linc., lady garten-berries Rxb., gayter-gatter Kent see Euonymus and Cornus sanguinea), bramble-berry, dogberry-tree, hounds-tree prick-timber-tree England, land-briars Shrop.

The berry: blackburns Cumb., black-bern Lanc., black-bum Lanc., black-boys Kent, black-boyds w.Scot., black-bowours, bowowarts Nhb., black-wowers n.Cy., Nhb., black-blegs, black-spice w.York., black-blutters Lanark, black-kites Cumb., Nhb.

law e.Anglia, lawyer Ches., Hrf., Glouc. Brk., e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight, country-lawyers Leic., laayer Brk., layur I.Wight, lawer Nrf., layer e.Angl., Nrf., lay-yer Brk.

mooch, mocher Glouc., moocher Hrf., Glouc., Wilt., perry-moucher, penny-moucher, Wilt., mulberry Scot., Nrf., Suff., Essex, e.Anglia., Som., scald-berry Lanark., Hert.

Rubus idaeus


rasp Ire., Scot., n.Cy., Dur., Cumb., York., Lanc., Derby, Not., Linc., Leic., Nhp., rausp N.Ire., wood-rasp Selk., raspberry, roiseberry Nrf., raspis (-) (< rasping, on account of the rough stems), himber w.York., himberry w.York., e.Lanc., hime-berry w.York., e.Lanc. (Germ. himbeer), hine-berry Cumb., w.York., arnberry York., hainberries Scot., ianberry Cumb., henberry, Staff., hindberry Scot., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Staff., hyndberry Scot., henberry Staff. (Dan. hindbær), framboise Dorset (French id.)

Rubus saxatilis

Stone Bramble

bunch-berry n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., bungle-berry Cumb., roebuck (-berry) Scot., Cumb., woodman’s rose Kent

Rumex acetosa

Common Sorrel

sour-dock York., sw.Cumb., Lanc., Dorset, Shrop., Ches., Som., Devon, sour-docken, sour-docking n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., York., e.Anglia, Devon, sour-salves n.Devon, saur-sauce York., s.Ches., Linc., Shrop, Corn., sour-sodge Buck., sour-sog, sour-sops Corn., sour-suds Devon, sorrow Glouc., s.Cy., Sussex., I.Wight, sow-sorrel Hert., cock-sorrel York. (see also Wood Sorrel; both taste sour), salad Berw., salary Oxf. (“celery”), celery-seed Sussex (attributed to R. obtusifolius); see celery; donkey’s oats Devon, cuckoo-bread Ches., bread-and-cheese Lakel., Devon, gobblety-guts w.York., London green-sauce e.Lanc., garden-sorrel (-), lammie-saurocks Rxb., tom-thumb, thousand-fingers Kent (?)

Rumex acetosella

wee sour-leek Antrim

Shep’s Sorrel

Rumex alpinus

butter-docking, butter-leaves Cumb. (see Rumex obtusifolius)

Monk’s Rhubarb

Rumex hydrolapathum

Water Dock

bloodwort n.Cy., Corn., bloody sea-dock Corn., bloodwort blood-dock w.Som., eldin-dochen, elgins Lothian (eldin “a fuel of any kind, esp. peat, turfs, sticks, brushwood”)

Rumex obtusifolius

Broad-leaved Dock

butter-dock Lanark, Ches., Corn., batter-dock Shrop., butter-dock butter-docking Lakel. (the leaves were formerly used in wrapping butter), keddle-dock Lanc. kettle-dock Goosnargh, land-robber Wilt.,

Rumex patientia

Patience Dock

patience-dock n.Cy., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, patient-dock Ches., w.Derby, payshun Lanc., payshen e.Lanc., passion Ches., passion-dock n.Cy., york., nw.Derby (attributed to Polygonum bistorta) (French patience Rumex patientia)  app. 2.15, monk-rhubarb Dmf.

Rumex sanguineus

red-and-white-dock Hert., red-dock Wilt., red sour-leek Antrim

Wood Dock

Ruscus aculeatus

knee-holly Engl., shepherd’s myrtle I.Wight, jew’s myrtle Kent, butcher’s broom England,

Butcher’s Broom

Ruta graveolens

herb-of-grace, herb-of-grass York., Derby, w.Som., Linc., herb-grace, ave-grace Sussex


Sagina procumbens

beads Wilt., bird’s eye Sussex, poverty Nrf.

Procumbent Pearlwort

Sagittaria sagittifolia

adder’s tongue Devon


Salicornia europaea


pickle(-plant) Irel., Scot., England  app. 2.9; samphire n.Cy., Linc., sampion Ches. (see Crithmum maritimum)

Salix alba

White Willow

willow Engl., Scot., willa Linc., willer n.Linc., willey n.Cy., Cumb., willie, wullie Scot., wully Nhb., Cumb., willy Scot., n.Cy., Lakel., Cumb., Westm., Glouc., Hamp., Dorset., w.Som., willan n.Scot., welig OE; perhaps akin to wilt “droop”, willowy “lithe and slender”, a reference to its flexible branches used for binding or to make baskets; cf. sallow (see Salix)

Salix aurita

moor-palm York.,

Eared Willow

Salix babylonica

drooping-willow Devon

Weeping Willow

Salix caprea

Pussy Willow

palm-willow Leic., Wilt., palm-tree York., Oxf., Wilt. (palm = catkin, see below), goat-willow Cumb. (translation of scient. name), black-sally Shrop. (also other species)

The catkins: pussy Glouc., pussy-cat n.Linc., Nhp., War., Wor., Glouc., Berk., Buck., s.Cy., Kent., e.Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., pussy-tails Wilt., pussy’s tail Devon, pussy-paum sw.Linc., pussy-willow Wilt.  app. 3.9

gosling Cumb., Ches., Nhp., War., Shrop., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., n.Essex, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt. goslin-tree w.Wilt., gesling n.Cy., Nhb., n&w.York., Ches., Derby, may-goslings, may-geslings w.York. (the catkins), goose-and-goslings Linc., Shrop., geese-and-goslings Derby, Nhp., goosey-goslings Dorset, goose-chickens Devon, goose-and-gublies Shrop. geese-an-gullies Ches., Shrop., gellings Hert.

palm N.Irel., Antrim, Down, Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., n.Cy., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Not., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Huntingdon, Nrf., Suff., Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Som., Devon (the catkins)gib Linc. (the “blossoms” = catkins)  app. 2.7.1; cat’s paws Wilt., cats-and-kittens Nhp., cats-and-dogs Devon, e.Corn., cat-heads Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, kyaat-yed s.Ches., kyats’ed Oxf., n.Linc., gull w.Wor., Sussex, willow gull Kent

Salix cinerea

grey saugh Nhb.

Grey Willow

Salix fragilis

snap-willow Wilt.

Crack Willow

Salix pentandra

willow-bays Staff., sweet-willy Cumb., black-willow Irel.

Bay Willow

Salix purpurea

Purple Willow

red sauch Rxb., red-eye Nhp., osier (French osier > app. 1-13; stone-osier Wilt., stonecrop-osier Surrey, n-ait Worc. “osier-bed”

Salix triandra

kit-willow Nhp., snake-skin willow Wilt., french-willow e.Cy., Sussex

Almond Willow

Salix viminalis

Common osier

wilger, welgar, welger, wolgar Devon, willow-wand Scot., Perth, Clyde, Ayr., Selk., Rxb., n.Cy. Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., Westm. “an osier”, twig Ches. (twigs used for binding), wicker Scot., Cumb. “a pliant osier twig”, persh Glouc.

Salix, collective names

willows, collective names

seal Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., seal-saugh Lakel., seal-tree Cumb., York., seale Cumb., n.York., sele York., sealh w.York.: Sykesmoss, sealh OE, seel Cumb., selly n.York., sally Irel., York., I.Man, Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Radnor, Glouc., Hert., Suff., Kent, Sussex, w.Cy., Wilt., salley Hert., sally-tree War., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Kent., Sussex, w.Cy., sally-withy Shrop., Hrf., Wilt., sally-bud I.Man (catkin), sallow England., soller Oxf., sollar Oxf., Bdf., Hert. (to seal is “to bind”; a reference to its long flexible branches used for binding; cf. also French saule) > app. 3.3

saugh Irel., Scot., Caith, Elgin, Ayr., Kirc., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., Lanc., sawg, sough n.York., sauch Scot., sawgh Lanark, saf Nhb., Suff., w.Dur., Cumb., sauf n.Cy., Nhb., e&w York., sauve Dur. (cf. Provençal saouzé, Franco-Provençal sôdze)

with Cumb., War., Shrop., wyth Cumb., withy Engl., Scot., Irel., withey York., wythy Glouc., widi Aberd., widdey n.Cy., witty Scot., Bnff., Nhb., Lakel., York., Lanc., Devon, wither Lanc., woddie, woody, waddie Scot., wuddy Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Irel., withen Lanc., Ches., Derby, within nw.Derby, wythen s.Lanc., wythin Lanc., withing Derby.  app. 3.7; whistle-wind, whistle-tree Lothian (used to make whistles)

Unidentified species: water-sallow Suff., fen-oaks nw.Devon, Corn., moss-willow Perth, mouser-withy w.Som.

Salvia officinalis

sauge w.York. (French sauge); English sage is applied to other species.

Garden Sage

Salvia sclarea

goody’s eye Caith., Lanark, clary

Clary Sage

Sambucus ebulus

Dwarf Elder

blood-elder, blood-hilder Nrf., dane’s blood Wilt., dane-weed Nhp. From a root dun-, dan- “reddish, reddish brown”  app. 1.6, water-elder Nhp., dwarf-elder Cumb., Devon, ground-elder, ground-eller s.Cy., I.Wight (?)

Sambucus nigra

Common Elder

eldern(tree), elder England, ellern War., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., Dorset, ellarn Shrop., ellen, ellin, hellin w.York., elun s.Wor., ellan se.Wor., elren n.Cy, ellet, ellot Suss., black-aller w.Som., ellena-ghou Irel. (ME eller, AS ellern, Low Germ. elloorn, Sw. hyll, Dan. hyld, ME hildir)

bur-tree n.Cy., Nhb., Durham, Westm., n.York., Ches., n.Linc., burr-tree Nhb., borral Scot., Selkirk, Nhb., bour-tree Scot., Irel., Engl., boor-tree Scot., n.Irel., n.Cy., Lanc., bor-tree Nhb., bore-tree n.Irel., n.York., Ches., bortery Estm., Cumb., baw-tree n.Linc., bothery, buthery e.York., bottery Westm., m. York, bothy ne. York., boutrey Westm., Cumb., boun-tree Scot., Nhb., bown-tree Nhb., bul-tree, bull-tree Cumb., Westm., Lanc.

scaw, skaw, scawen, scow, skow, skew, scaw-tree Corn. (O.Corn. scaw), scawsy-bud Corn. (the flower).

trammon I.Man, judas-tree Kent, devil’s wood Derby, witchwood Lakel. (see Ulmus glabra), dog-tree w.York.(?)

Sambucus nigra var. laciniata

feathered elder Oxf.

Common Elder, cultivar

Sambucus racemosa

maiden-elder Corn. dog-rowan Lanark (it has red berries like the Rowan of Mountain Ash)

Alpine Elder

Sanguisorba minor

reed-knobs s.Not. (for red-) sot-herb York., salad-burnet (-)

Salad Burnet

Sanguisorba officinalis

red-heads w.York., maiden-heads York.

Great Burnet

Santolina incana

silver-lavender War.,

Lavender Cotton

Saponaria officinalis


hedge-pink Hamp., farewell-summer Monmouth, gill-run-by-the-street Kent., Sussex (see Glechoma hederacea)

Satureja hortensis

Winter Savory

savory England (from French saveur “flavour”, cf. dial. Spanish saborba “a variety of Satureja”, from sabor “flavour”)

Saxifraga granulata

Meadow Saxifrage

saxifrax Som., double-saxifer Oxf. (the two-flowered variety), fair-maid-of-France Buck. (the double-flowered variety), ladies’ featherbeds Sussex, lady’s smock s.Pemb., snow-on-the-mountain Wilt., cuckoo-flower e.York., dryland-cuckoo, dry-cuckoo Wilt., parsley-breakstone e.Anglia, Nrf.

Saxifraga hypnoides

sweet-betsies Glouc., lady’s pincushion York., lady’s cushion, ladies’ cushion Cumb., w.York., queen’s cushion w.Dur.

Mossy Saxifrage

Saxifraga stolonifera

Creeping Saxifrage

creeping-sailor Shrop., spider-plant, roving-jenny Devon, mother-of-thousands Midl., Wilt., Devon, mother-of-millions Devon, old-man’s beard Devon, aaron’s beard Devon, hens-and-chickens Wilt., strawberry-leaved geranium Wilt., strawberry-plant w.Som., poor man’s geranium Devon

Saxifraga tridactylites

rue-whitlow-grass Ork.

Rue-leaved Saxifrage

Saxifraga umbrosa

Pyrenean Saxifrage

none-so-pretty s.Scot., Lanark, Gall., n.Cy., Nhb., n.Linc., Nhp., Glouc., e.Anglia, e.Suff., Devon, nancy-pretty Scot., Nhb., Lakel., York., Lanc., Som., Devon, little-and-pretty Dorset, silk-and-silver-johns w.York., prince’s feather Lanc., Sussex, Devon, queen’s feather Ches., pheasant’s feather Sussex, peace-and-plenty Wilt., hens-and-chickens Wilt., Devon, chicken Devon, leaf-of-Saint-Patrick Galway, edging Devon (plant suitable for edgings), bird’s eye Devon, sweet-betsy Oxf., lady-needlewort, ladies’ needlewort War., lady-in-white Wilt., kiss-me Glouc., Wilt., kiss-me-quick, look-up-and-kiss-me Devon, kiss-me-john at the garden-gate(s) Glouc., Devon (see Pansy)

Scabiosa atropurpurea

Sweet Scabious

gipsy-rose I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, Devon, mournful-widow, poor-widow Devon, pincushion n.Buck., e.Anglia., Devon, lady’s pincushion Suff.,

Scabiosa columbaria

blue-buttons Wilt.

Small Scabious

Scandix pecten-veneris

Shepherd’s Needle

needle n.Linc., Nrf., e.Anglia (attributed also to Capsella), needle-points Essex, needle-weed Nrf., crow-needles Linc., Nhp., Hert., s.Cuck., Essex, I.Wight, crow-pecks Hmp, Wilt., old woman’s needle Hamp., devil’s darning-needle, deil’s darnin needle Lanark, devil’s elshin Berw., Nhb., adonis’s needle, witch’s needle Nhb., pork’s needle, puck’s needle Wor., War., clock-needle s.Buck., shepherd’s needle Lanark, Shrop., beggar’s needle Midl., War. Wor., old-woman’s needle Hamp., old-wife’s darning-needles n.York., tailor-needles, n.Devon, Corn., tailor Corn.. adam’s needle Nhb., witch’s needles Nhb., shepherd’s needle (-), crake-needle n.Cy., n&e.York., from the long needle-like fruits, elsin Nhb. (a shoe maker’s tool; OF alesne, French alène “awl”), shepherd’s comb n.York., hedghog Surrey, Sussex

Schoenoplectus lacustris ?


round-rush Hert. “a sedge” (this species has cylindrical leaves), wilt e.Cy. “a kind of rush or sedge” perhaps Schoenoplectus lacustris, from wilt “to droop”, floss Scot., York., Caith., Shetl., York. (attributed to “Juncus communis”); bulrush is a name for Typha see  app. 2.1

Schoenus nigricans

clock-seaves n.Cy., e.York. (for seave, see Sedge)

Black Bog-rush

Scilla nutans

Drooping Star of Bethlehem

bluebell Nhb., Durham, Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Linc., Rutland., Leic., War., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berw., Hert., Kent, Dorset, Devon, Corn., blue-bottle Berw., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight, Wilt., hare-bell Londonderry, Devon, bell-bottle Berw., wood-bells n.Buck., white-bluebell Devon, ring-o bells Lanc.

greggle Wilt., Dorset, Som., griggle Dorset, Som., graegle, greygole, gramfer-greygles Dorset (grand-father-), greggle Wilt., Dorset

craw-feet Westm., n.Lanc., crake-feet n.Cy., crow-foot Westm., Lakel., Radnor, crow’s legs Wilt., crow-bells Wilt., crow-toes Down, craw-tees sw.Scot., Nhb., Berw., Rnf., craw-flower Scot. (= prob. Ranunculus repens), cuckoo’s boots Shrop. cuckoo’s stocking Staff., Derby, Not. (= prob. Lotus corniculatus), cuckoo Devon, Corn., cuckoo-flower Devon, Corn., bloody man’s fingers Glouc. (?), culvers Oxf., Essex, culverkey(s) Som. (= prob. Primula)

Scilla verna

sea-onion I.Man

Spring Squill

Scirpus sylvaticus

millet I.Wight (for club-rush, see Typha)

Wood Club-rush

Scrophularia auriculata

Water Figwort

water-betony Ork., n.York., Leic., Kent, Sussex, huntsman’s cap Corn. (from the shape of the corolla), babes-in-the cradle Wilt., squarrib Wilt. (square-ribbed stem), fiddle-sticks Wilt., fiddle-wood e.York, fiddle York., Banff, n.Linc., War., Devon “when scraped accross one another fiddle-fashion, the stems produce a squaking sound”; poor man’s salve s.Devon, crowdy-kit Devon, scaw-dower w.Corn. (see Sambucus nigra), stinking-christopher Cumb., stinking-roger Gall., Ulster, Lakel., Cumb., Ches. (misapplied, this species does not stink)

Scrophularia nodosa

Common Figwort

brunnet, brown-net, brown-wort Devon, brennet Som. (from its brown stems), rose-noble Donegal, Antrim, Tyrone, Gall., Ulster app. 2.2; fiddle w.York. (see Scrophularia aquatica), murrain-grass (-), (see Stellaria media) poor man’s salve s.Devon, cut-finger Surrey

Secale cereale

rye Scot., Nhb., Nhp., Hert., I.Wight, Wilt., raaye I.Wight, raye Scot., Nhb., Hert., Wilt.


Sedum acre

Biting Stonecrop

creeping-charlie, creeping-jenny Devon, creeping-jack Ches., Wilt., creeping-sailor Shrop., gold-dust Suff., golden-moss n.York., Wor.,Oxf., golden stone-crop Berk., biting stonecrop, cropstone (-), rock-crop Corn., rock-plant Devon, crowdy-kit o’ the-wall Devon, happy-family Ches., french-moss Buck., poor man’s pepper Not. Suss., little-houseleek Cumb., London-pride w.Som., queen’s cushion Rxb., pig’s ears Devon

Sedum hispanicum

Indian-fog Donegal

Spanish Stonecrop

Sedum rupestre

Reflexed Stonecrop

ginger Nrf., Suff., Kent (ginger is a light red or yellow colour ð app. 1.15, creeping-jenny Hrf., fox’s bush Linc., love-link sw.Scot., seven-years-in-a-chain Cumb., prick-madam Cumb., jealousy Shrop., Kent, sow’s ear Oxf. (a variety)

Sedum spurium

devil’s barley sw.Scot.

caucasian Stonecrop

Sedum telephium


orpine Scot., Ches., Hert., Hamp., alpine Ches., arpent, arpent-weed Hert., Hamp., orpey sw.Scot., orpie Scot., orpy, orpy-leaf Rxb., orphan-john e.Anglia (French orpin), healing-leaf Scot., Sterl. (used for treatment of sheep affected with the “trembling ill”), live-long Nrf., Hamp., midsummer-men Nhb., Wilt., harping-johnny Nrf., Solomon’s puzzle London, jacob’s ladder Kent

Sedum villosum

small marsh-sengreen Edinb.

Hairy Stonecrop

Sempervivum tectorum


foose Scot., Nhb., fews, fows Scot., fooz Nhb., fouse Gall., fouet Scot., Nhb., Banff, Lanark, fouat, fooit Scot., fuet Nhb., fu-it Rxb., full, fullen n.Cy., Nhb.

house-green Ches., War. Nhp., house-leek (-), houzlick, huslock Westm., York., Nhp., Suff., hollick, ollick Corn.

aye-green Westm., Lanc., aigreen s.Lanc., hay-green, agreen Cumb. (evergreen), sengreen Scot., War., Shrop., Kent., I.Wight, Dorset, Devon, syphelt Cumb., cyphel n.Cy., ere-wort ME (earwort), Jupiter’s beard Devon, poor jan’s leaf Devon,

Senecio aquaticus

water-seggrum w.York. (?) in spite of its name this plant is not aquatic

Marsh Ragwort

Senecio jacobae

Common Ragwort

keddle-dock Lanc., Ches., kadle-dock, cradle-dock Ches., kedlock s.Lanc., kettle-dock m.Lanc., Ches., cheadle-dock, cradle-dock Ches.

yellow-top Nhb. yellow-weed Scot., yellow-daisy Dorset, gleenwit Lanc. (= gleen wort, shiny), weebo, weebis, webis, weibis, wybis Scot., weebie Perth, Fife, yack-yard Linc., yark-rod Linc., tirso Ork., cushag I.Man, cuishag-vooar-as-veg Manx, ell-shinders Nhb., ground-swaith, ground-swathe Cumb., groundsel, grunsel (no kin to gund “pus” as in Klein), bunnel Selkirk, bund-weed Scot., Suff., benwood Ayres., fly-dod Ches., fly-nurt Lanc., ragged-jack w.York., Essex, Kent, Sussex, w.Som., ragweed, ragwort (-), jame’s weed Shrop., canker-weed e.Anglia, Nrf. (also S. sylvaticus, S. tenuifolius), seggy e.York., seggums mugger (-), muggert, muggerd Cumb. (see Artemisia vulgaris), stinking-weed s.Scot., Gall., stinking-willie(s) Moray, Caith., stinking-billy Linc., stinking-davies Fife, stinking-nanny s.Not., mare-fart Ches., fairy-horse Irel., sleepy-dose Banff (= prob. Ornithogalum), dog-stalk w.York., dog-stander n.Cy., w.York., War., dog-standard York. (= prob. Verbascum), summer(‘s) farewell Devon

Senecio vulgaris


sencion, sension, senshon, sinsion e.Anglia, senchion Nrf., simson Suff., Kent, simpson e.Anglia., Suff., Essex, Kent, bowens Cumb., bowlocks Ayres., bird-seed York.

Sherardia arvensis

dodger Shrop.

Field Madder

Sibthorpia europaea

penny-pies Corn.

Cornish Moneywort

Silene coronaria

lamb’s ears Ches.,

Rose Campion

Silene dioica

Red Campion

bachelor’s button Cumb., York., Lanc., Nhp., War., Wor. Suff., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Devon, red bachelor button Wor., Suss., plum-pudding Suff., cancer Scot., cuckoo-pint Nhp.

Silene latifolia

White Campion

bird’s eye Devon, large-robin’s eye Glouc., cock-robin Devon, Corn., white robin Dorset, round-robin Devon, Kent, poor-robin Devon, rose-campion n.York., Glouc., mint-drops Nhb., flea-bites Corn., brideen Ches., cow-mack Scot., mother-dee, mother-die Cumb., cockle Nrf., Rutland, cuckoo Not., Devon, cuckoo-flower War., Berk., Suff., Devon app. 2.3; billy-buttons Essex, War., bachelor’s button York., Suss., bachelor’s buttons Dorset, white bachelor button War., sailor-buttons Huntingdon, Hamp., soldier(‘s) buttons n.York., soldier n.Cy., Ches., lousy-soldiers-buttons Lanc., lausy-beds Cumb., geuky-flower Devon (cuckoo-), head-wark Lakel., scalded apple Shrop., apple-pie (?) n.York., wild geranium Ches. (?), water-poppies Linc. (?), bull-rattle Berw., cow-rattle s.Buck. (see Rhinanthus angustifolius), god’s stocking Lanc. (see Lotus corniculatus), adder-and-snake plant n.Devon, adder’s flower Herts., snake-flower Oxf., w.Midl., devil’s flower Lanc., jack-by-the-edge, jack-in-the-edge, Sussex (hedge) = Cuckoo Pint ?

Silene uniflora

thimble e.Anglia, dead-man’s grief Nhb.

Sea Campion

Silene vulgaris

Bladder Campion

bladder-weed, bladder campion Dorset, cockle War., white mint-drops Nhb., bird’s eggs Ches. (from the shape its inflated calyx), white robinhood Wilt., white bottle Cumb.

clap-weed Hert., snap-crackers Essex, snap-jacks Wilt., Dorset., Som., Devon, snap-stalks Ches., snap-wort Kent, snap Wilt., snap-grass Kent, snapper-flower Kent, Sussex, Devon (attributed to Stellaria holostea), spattling-poppy Cumb., thunderbolt Kent, thunderbold Rutland, thunder-flower w.York., Cumb. (the children snap the calyxes which explode), bull-rattle Berw., bull’s eye Dev.  app. 2.1; cracker Sussex, cow-cracker Dmf., cow-rattle s.Buck., rattle-bags Devon, rattle-weed Wilt. (or rhin.?), corn-pop Wilt.

Silybum marianum

Milk Thistle

milky-thristle Nhb., milky-dashle nw.Devon, milky-dicel, milky-disle, milky-dizel Corn., milky-dashel Devon. (on account of its white-marbled leaves)

Virgin-Mary’s thistle Ches., Buck., e.Anglia, Suff., Hamp., Virgin-Mary’s fistle, Virgin’s thistle Ches., from its marbled leaves. Names of birds or plants with the root mar- variegated:  app. 1.4; secondary: lady-thistle n.Linc., Devon, blessed thistle War.

Sinapis alba

mustard-cress Devon, carlock Glouc. (see Sinapis arvensis)

White Mustard

Sinapis arvensis


skellach Aberd., skellag, skiollag Caith., shiolag Caith., skellock, skeldock, skeldick, skellie Scot., skelloch Lothian, skillock Rnf., skedlock Lanc. (Gaelic sgeallag “mild mustard”) brassock York., bazzocks n.York., brassic ne. York. (Lat. brassica), zenvy Som. (Fr. sénevé), runch Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., runsh n&e.York., Cumb., York., runshag Caith., runshick Scot., runsic Shet., Ork., runch-balls n.Cy., yellow-flower Ches., yellow-fever Nhb., rape n.York., field-kale, field-keall Cumb., wild kale Wigtown, Kirc., Lanark, Antrim, wild mustard Scot., War., Cumb., wild turnip w.York., pepper-grass s.Pemb., head-ridge Pemb., calve’s feet War., Glouc., popple Cumb. (the seed; popple = also pebble, cobble), kayles Cumb. (see Brassica oleracea), kelk Kent, Sussex, Wilt. (see Umbelliferae)

Sinapis arvensis, also Sinapis alba, Sinapis nigra, Raphanus raphanistrum

Mustard, Wild Mustard and other plants of the Cabbage family with yellow flowers

carlock, karlock York., Not., Rutland, Nhp., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., Oxf., Berwick, Bedf., Huntingdon, Suff., Essex., Sussex, Buck., kyerlock Shrop., Oxf., kyerlick Oxf., curlock Hert., garlock Nrf., gol-lock Wilt., harlock Essex, warlock I.Wight, charlocke, chadlocke (1633), charlock Sussex, charwick War., callock Nhp., kellock Glouc., careluck Glo., kerlock York., Shrop., Glouc., Sussex, kerlack Not., Nhp., kerlick Buck., Oxf., curlick Oxf., Buck., carlic Bedf., cerlic OE, catlog Surrey, kedlock Kent, Surrey, Sussex, cadlock, kadlock, kedlock York., Lanc., Ches., Staff., Derby, Not., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Shrop., Her., Glouc., Hert., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, ketlack Linc., cadlick Kent, e.Susssex, rough-cadlock n.Cy.

Sison amomum

spikenard Hamp.

Stone Parsley

Sisymbrium officinale

white charlite w.Dorset, lucifer-matches Wor.

Hedge Mustard

Smyrnium olusatrum

alick Kent, alexander (-), megweed Sussex, skeet Corn.


Solanum dulcamara


bittersweet Nhb., Cumb. Nhp. n.Linc., Som., York., War., Kent, Hmp, w.Som., nw.Devon, poison-berry se.Scot., n.Cy. Nhb., Oxf., poisoning-berries w.York., poison-flower Hert., poisonous tee-plant Oxf., snake’s food Buck., snake-berry Suff., orf-wood Wor. (for half wood), dog-wood Lanc., fellon-wood Cumb., w.York., Lanc., shady-night nw.Linc., poor man’s weather-glass Banff, robin-run-a-hedge Lanc., scaw-coo Corn. (see Sambucus nigra), tether-devil, terry-divil, terry-diddle Ches. (see Fallopia)

Solanum tuberosum


pottato, potito, Lanc., tato(e) se.Scot., partaow Rnf., potaty w.York., potate, porate York., puttate w.York., potaaty Shetl, Ork., taaty Clydesdale, pottytu Lanc., pertaayter Berk., pertater Kent, Corn., taayter Berk., tater Ches., Shrop., s.Oxf., Dorset, w.Som., tatur w.Som., Corn., pertatie Surrey, taty Scot., Nhb., patantie Gall., piatee Irel., pyatie Wexf., pitatey n.Irel., pitatie Gall., pitaty Irel., tati Scot., pitattie Lanark, pittattie, pitata Scot., pitawta Scot., Aberd., Gall., Wigtown, pueata Tipperary, pittayatee w.Irel., poltate, poltatie Corn., porrito Lanc., praitay N.Irel., prata Ches., prae Irel., praitie Donegal, pratie Irel., Lanc., preaty Irel., pratee Mayo, pratey n.Irel., prato m.Lanc., Ches., prawta Wigtown, pritta n.Irel.

potato-apple War. (the berry), potato-vine Wilt. (the stem), cruffles N.Irel., Antrim (French truffle and many dial. variants), Irish lemons War. (pleasant)

Potato varieties: silver-skin Som., kidney Som., kidney-bean potato (-), purple n.Som., rough-red Lanark, Som., red-neb Rxb., pinkeye York., Ches., n.Linc., w.Som., cup Ireland, Wexf., kemps Irel. (a superior variety), loltidoll Scot.: Gall. “the largest species of potato”, warple w.York., American breezers Oxford, filaera Lanc., Ches., white-rock Ches., white-scotch n.Som., ash-top Essex, yellow-leg Ireland, killymawkee Nhb. (a blue, freckled variety), rattocks Ches., Shrop. “very small potatoes”, (Swed. rata “reject”), chat Cumb., w.York., Lanc., Ches. sw.Linc., Hamp., Glouc., Kent, Devon (a small potato of inferior quality), chatoes Shrop., apple-potato Mayo, shaw n.Linc. (“a kind of potato”, perhaps the tubers selected for planting, from shaw “to sow”), bait, baitik Scotland (seed potato); spud (not in Wright)  app. 2.7.4

Plant parts: bleem Caith. (the stalk), jacket s.Scot., Lakel., w.York., Lanc., Oxf. (the skin of a potato), keous N.Irel. “the rootlets of a potato plant”

Solidago virgaurea


golden-rod e.Lanc., Cumb., York., Berk., Oxf.: Chilsey Woods, aaron’s rod Shrop., War., Hert., farewell-summer Som.

Sonchus oleraceus

Smooth Sow-thistle

milk-thistle n.Linc., War., Wor., milk-weed w.Som., milky-dashel, milky-dassel, milky-dazzle Devon, Corn., milky-dickle Devon, milky-tassel Corn. (tassel etc. = thistle; see also Silybum marianum), sow- tree sow-thistle Shrop., bread Kent, sow-flower Wilt., sow-thistle Nhb., sow-dingle n.Linc., hog-weed Hamp., swine-thistle Gall., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., e.Cy., swine-weed ne.Lanc., swiney e.Dur. (used as pig’s fodder), rosemary Linc. (?), dindle e.Anglia, dindel Nrf. (see Hieracium)

Sorbus aria


whitten-beam Hamp., whip-beam Hert., whip-crop I.Wight (for whit-), white rice Hamp., I.Wight, hoar-withy Hamp. (from the white undersurface of the leaves), iron-pear Wilt., wild pear-tree Derby, chess-apple Westm., Lanc., mulberry Aberd. (?)

Sorbus aucuparia

Rowan, Mountain Ash

rowan s.Irel, Lanark, n.Cy., Dur., York., roan Antrim, Lanark, Scot., n.Cy., Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Kent, rown Lanark, round Irel., ran Scot., n.Cy., w.York., rowan-tree Ire., Gall., Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Linc., Pemb., Kent, rowan-try Nhb., rowen-tree Scot., York., rountree Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., Westm., royn-tree w.York., royne-tree n.Cy., w.York., ron-tree s.Pemb., York, ronn-tree Lothian, Edinb., raun-tree, rawn-tree Scot., raan-tree ne.Lanc., rantry w.Scot., York., rantry-tree Aberd., ranty N.Irel., Selk., rowan-berry Frf., w.York.  app. 1.9

roddin-tree Aberd., Clackmannan, redden Nhb., roddin, rodden, roden, rodin, roddon, roddeen, rooden Scot., Caith., Inverness, Banff., Moray, Buchan, Aberd. (the berries)  app. 1.10

wiggen n.Cy., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Ches., Wales. Derby, Devon, quicken s.Scot., n.Cy., w.York., n&e.Lanc., Ches., Derby, n.Linc., War., Shrop., Kent, wigan w.York., Derby, Devon, wiggan n.Cy., York., wiggin Cumb., Westm., w.York., s.Lanc., Derby, Devon, Wales, wiggy Dur., wickey Dur., Ches., Derby, Shrop., wicky Dur., Shrop., hwicken Nhb., whicken n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., York., War., wicken n.Cy., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, n.Linc., Shrop., wickin Lakel., e.Lanc., wickun w.York., witchen York., Ches., Nhp., Wor., wychen Ches., witch-wicken sw.Linc., witchwood n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Lakel., Cumb., York., Suff., wychwood Cumb., witch-beam Devon. See also Ulmus glabra)

whitten-tree Shrop., Irel., whitty, whitty berry Shrop., kern I. Man, care, care-tree Devon, Corn., caer Corn., keer Devon (Irish Gaelic caor, Welsh cair-berry “berry of the Mountain Ash”).

cock-drink, cock-drunk Lakel, sw. Cumb. (the berries), chitchat, chit-jack Hrf., Wilt., hen-drunks Cumb., whistle-wood w.York. (see Salix), dog-berry Cumb., Lakel. (= Rubus or Rosa), poison-berry Nhb., w.York. (certainly not this species)

Sorbus intermedia

french-hales Devon

Swedish Whitebeam

Sorbus torminalis

Service Tree

chequers (the fruit), chequer, chequer-wood, chequer-tree Kent, Sussex (allusion to the chequered appearance of the fruit), serbs, serve Sussex (French sorbier) > app. 1.11; shir Surrey, whitty-pear Wor., swallow-pear Dorset, lezzory, lizzory Glouc., hag-berry m.York. (see Crataegus laevigata)

Sparganium erectum

black-weed e.Angl.

Branched Bur-reed

Spergula arvensis

Corn Spurrey

yarr Scot., Aberd., Banff, Nhb., Cumb., Lanc., yawr Berw., Nhb., Cumb., yur Cumb., (see Yarrow Achillea millefolium), dodder Cumb., Ches., sw.Linc., Rutland, Nhp., Midl., Devon, dother Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Rutland, Nhp., Midl., Devon  app. 3.1; blore Cumb., bottle-brush w.York., cow-quake e.Cy., hair Cumb., granyagh Irel., sand-weed e.Anglia, Nrf., puppety-weed Surrey, toad-grass, toad-flax Ches., pick-purse Linc., pickle Ches.  app. 2.9; poverty-weed n.York., meldy-grass Shetl., Ork., see Chenopodium album

Spergularia media

sea-turf Devon

Greater Sand-spurrey

Spiraea japonica

feather-fern Devon

Japanese Spirea

Spiraea salicifolia

aaron’s beard n.Linc., Leic.


Spiranthes spiralis

lady’s tresses w.York., Devon, lady’s traces Hamp.

Autumn Lady’s Tresses

Stachys byzantina

Woolly Betony

blanket-leaf Devon, lamb-tongue, lamb’s tongue Devon, lamb’s ears Ches., mouse-ear Shrop.

Stachys germanica

mouse-ear Shrop.

Downy Woundwort

Stachys officinalis

wood-betony Ches., devil’s plaything Shrop., wild hop War.


Stachys palustris

Marsh Betony

maskert(s) Scot., swine’s maskerts, swine’s mosscorts Scot., swine-arnot’ Banff (s. earth nut), sheep’s brisken Donegal, cock-head Lanark, deea-nettle sw.Cumb. (dead-), marsh-betony N.Irel., Antrim, marsh wound-wort Banff., Edinb., clown’s all-heal (-), rough-weed N.Irel., Antrim (= Carex ?)

Stachys sylvatica

Hedge Woundwort

hedge-nettle, hedge dead-nettle Shrop., wild grass-nettle Nhp., cow’s weather-wind, cow’s withy-wind s. Buck., nettle-foot Ches., dey-nettle Nhb. (= dead-, see Lamium)

Stellaria graminea

little-snapjacks Dorset

Lesser Stitchwort

Stellaria holostea

Greater Stitchwort

This inconspicuous, unobtrusive plant, without known medicinal uses, has been attributed an inordinate number of names; most of the following designations appear to belong to the Common Chickweed, a similar but very common and obnoxious garden weed: white-flower Wilt., white bird’s-eye Buck., e.Radnor, white bobby’s eye Hamp., bird’s eye Durham, York., Derby, Wor., whitsunday, whit-zundays Devon, whitsuntide Hamp., snow e.Sussex, snow-flake e.Sussex, lady’s lint Devon, lady’s white-petticoat Hrf., star-flower n.Linc., e.Sussex., star-grass w.York., star-of-Bethlehem n.Cy., Not., w.Cy., Devon, stitchwort e.Susssex, eyebright w.Som., devil’s eyes Denbigh, billy-butons, billy-white-buttons War., bachelor’s button Berw., Suff., sailor-buttons Hamp., shirt-buttons Cumb., Nrf., Essex., w.Kent, Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, may-flower sw.Cumb., may-grass Shrop., miller’s star Sussex, easter-bell Devon, easter-flower e.Suss., breakbones Ches. (prob. the Common Chickweed)

Other names also attributed to several other species: wild pink Buck., dead-man’s bones Nhb., snap-jacks Devon (prob. the Bladder Campion), cuckoo-flower Kent., I.Wight, cuckoo-bread Buck. (prob. the Wood Sorrel), poppy Wilt. (= Papaver), old-lad’s corn Shrop., adder’s meat, adder’s spit Corn., snake-grass Hamp., snake(‘s) flower Not., sw.Linc., Wor., Hamp., Wilt. (= Arum), pixy Devon, pickle Kent, Som., Devon (?). nightingale-flower Wilt., milk-cans Ches., milk-maid w.York, I.Wight, Surrey, Devon, milk-pans Ches. (prob. names for Euphorbia), mother’s thimble, mother-shimble’s Wilt. (Foxglove ?), snick-needle(s) Wilt. (Shepherd’s Needle ?), scurvy-grass Wor. (?) moon-wort n.York., moon-flower War. (prob. the Honesty)

Stellaria media

Common Chickweed

chicken-weed, chicken-wort Irel., Scotland, York., e.Fife, Cumb., Ches., n.Linc., sw.Linc., Nrf., cuckenwort Nhb., chickny-weed Devon, chicken’s meat e.Anglia, chykemete OE, cicenemate 12th cent., cicena mete AS, cluckweed, clucken-weed, cukenwort Nhb., henbit, henbite, craches (-), gosk Caith., gorsk Scot. (of grass etc.: to grow in luxurious patches), murrain York., Nrf., Hamp., I.Wight (French mouron), tongue-grass Irel. (?) see Lepidium sativum

Stratiotes aloides

water-pine Ches.

Water Soldier

Strychnos nux-vomica

crow-fig Shrop.

Strychnine Tree

Suaeda maritima

rosemary, sea-rosemary Nrf.

Annual Seablite

Succisa pratensis

Devil’s bit Scabious

blue-buttons Cumb. York., Ches., War., bluecap n.Cy., e.York., ne.Lanc., gentleman’s buttons Shrop., bachelor’s button Glouc., Hamp., devil’s button Corn., devil’s bit s.Scot., w.York., n.Linc., War., Wor., Shrop., Corn., devil’s bit scabies w.Som., fire-leaves Hrf., lamb’s ears War., bee-flower Hamp., bund-weed, bunds-weed e.Anglia, hog-a-back Cumb. (= Lappa), hard-head Lanc. (= Centaurea nigra), woolly-hardhead Corn. (=?), stinking-nancy Ches.(?), curl-doddy N.Irel., curly-doddy s.Scot., Fife, Nhb.

Symphoricarpos rivularis

snow-ball Devon


Symphytum officinale

Common Comfrey

gooseberry-pie Wilt., Dorset, Devon, shop-comfrey Lanark (transl. of scient. name), snake Dorset, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Linc., also other plants having different shades of colour among the flowers on the same stem

Symphytum tuberosum

comfrey Engl., comfort-knit-bane Scot., Banff., comfer-knit-bane Banff., Aberdeen, knit-been (-)

Tuberous comfrey

Syringa vulgaris


lealock n.Linc., lilyoak Scot., Fife, Edinb., laylac York., laylock Not., s.Linc., Wilt., England, laelock Nhb., laeloc Nhb., Shrop., laelich Cumb., laalick w.York. (French lilac), may-bushes s.Devon, may-flower Corn., french-may Kent, chess-may Corn., roman-willow n.Linc., spanish ash, white-ash Glouc. (the white variety), blue ash Glouc., oyster Devon (a bunch), prince’s feather, princy-feather Rutland, queen’s feather Devon (?), duck’s bill Devon (?)

Tamarix gallica

cypress, brummal Corn. (bramble)


Tamus communis

Black Bryony

bead-bind Hamp., broyant Montgomery, wild vine Ches., I.Wight, poison-berry Kent., Sussex, Wilt., Devon, poisoning-berries w.York., adder’s meat Som., Devon, adder’s poison, snake’s food, snake’s meat Devon, snake-berry Suff., Devon, ox-berry, berry-root Shrop., Hrf., Wor., mednip Hrf. (root of bryony), rue-berry, row-berry Devon, roll-berry n.Devon, murrain-berries I.Wight (see Bryonia)

Tanacetum parthenium


featherfew Scot., England, fitherfew Shrop., featherfeuil York., featherfewl Cumb., n.York., featherfold Hrf., Glouc., featherwold s.Pemb., feverfoullie Scot., featherfooly Rxb., Nhb., featherfowl w.York., Dorset, Devon, featherfoy Glouc., featherful Nhb., m.York., feathyfew, veathervaw Devon, veathervow w.Som., feverfew Scot., York., Ches. (attributed to Centaurium erythraea) (OF fevrefue), midsummer-daisy Devon, michaelmas-daisy Devon, devil’s daisy Wilt. (unpleasant odour), nose-bleed w.Som., arsemart w.York., n.Linc., Wilt., Ches., I.Wight, yes-smert nw. Dev., white-wort I.Wight, button n.York., w.Som., bachelor’s button Westm., botham Corn.

Tanacetum vulgare


tansy n.York (French tanaisie; not “from Medieval Latin athanasia ‘immortality’ “), but from a root tan- a red-brown or yellow colour  app. 1.7, stinking-willie Sutherland, stinking-elshander Perth (“Alexander”), scent-fern w.Som., Devon, Joynson’s remedy-cheese Buck., ginger(plant) Lanc., n.Buck., Hert., Kent, traveler’s rest Wilt., weebo Fife (see Senecio jacobae), mushroom Devon (?), parsley-fern Devon (see Polypodium)

Taraxacum officinale

Common Dandelion

blow-away s.Not., blow-ball w.York., clock (the downy head) Ncy. Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., York., Westm., Ches., Staff., s.Not., n.Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., se.Wor., Berw., e.Anglia, Wilt., Som., s.Berk., down-head-clock Gall., clock n.Frf., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., York., Westm., Ches., Shrop., s.Not., Lanc., Nhp., War., se.Wor., Berw., e.Anglia, Wilt., Som., s.Berk. (the downy seedhead), priest’s crown n.Linc., blindy-buffs York. (the seed-heads), live-long e.Anglia (the head), fortune-teller Ayr. “alluding to the children’s custom of blowing off the down for purposes of divination”

piss-a-bed Irel., Scot., England (also applied to other similar species), pish-th’bed Donegal, piss-bed e.Anglia, pissebed n.Lanc., pissibed Cumb., York., ne.Lanc., pissubed n.York., pissybed Cumb., Westm., n.York., pee-a-bed Devon pissimire Lakel., York., pismire, pissmare w.York., pissimer Westm., pissy-mudder Cumb. (cf. French pisse-en-lit)

dandelion Radnor (attributed to Caltha palustris), dandy-go-lion War., denty-lion, dentelion, dentilioun Scot., dindel e.Anglia (French dent-de-lion)

male Dorset, dog-posy w.York., e.Lanc., heart-fever-grass Donegal, Irish daisy York., gowan Nhb., n.Cy., witch-gowan Scot., Dmf., milk-gowan Selk., devil’s milk plant Kircud.

Taxus baccata


wire-thorn n.Cy., York., Linc., palm-tree Kent, palm Irel., snod War., snoder-gill Hamp., snod-gog Kent, snot Linc., Nhp., Som., snat Nhp., snottle-berry w.York., snotter-gall Berk., Wilt., snotgob Surrey, snoter-gob Bdf., Surr., snotter-gobbles Bdf. (the berry; so named from its viscous quality)

yew (Germ Eibe, MHG îwe, OHG îwa, Welsh iw, ywen, Gael. iughar, French if, Dutch ijf

Teucrium scorodonia

rock-mint Som., wild sage Waterford, Ches.

Wood- Sage

Thalictrum aquilegifolium

feathered columbine n.York., Ches.

Greater Meadow-rue

Thalictrum flavum

fen rue (-), “feld-rude” AS, herb-of-grace Dorset

Common Meadow-rue

Thelypteris palustris

ground-fern I.Wight

Marsh Fern

Thlaspi arvense

penny-cress Edinb.

Field Pennycress

Thymus serpyllum

mother-of-thyme Irel., Cumb., Wor., shepherd’s thyme War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Buck., horse-thime Nhp.

Breckland Thyme

Tilia cordata

bass Linc., base e.Anglia, boss Ches.

Small-leaved Lime

Tilia platyphyllos

broad-leaved elm Essex

Large-leaved Lime

Tilia x vulgaris

Common Lime

lin, lin-tree n.Cy., York., Derby, Linc., linn Derby, line Linc. (OE lind, Germ. linden), lime-tree, alteration of line (Oxford dict.); this form does not occur in the British Isles speeches; it is a literary alteration; white-wood Wor., I.Wight, drum Nhp., drumstick War. [lime-sedge (Wright sub pry, 3), is a Carex not Tilia parvifolia]

Torilis japonica

Upright Hedge-parsley

pig’s parsley w.Som., red-kecks w.York., mother-dee Ches., scabby-head Ches., hog-weed Glouc., devil’s nightcap War., lady-needlewort Ches.

Tormentilla officinalis

earth-bark Shetl., Ork. (used as a substitute for bark in tanning leather)


Trachystemon orientalis

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Linc.

Oriental Borage

Tradescantia virginiana

trinity Kent (three petals), wandering-jew Devon (a creeper)


Tragopogon porrifolius

nap-at-noon w.York., Lanc.


Tragopogon pratensis


nap-at-noon Cumb., Midl., Shrop., jack-go-to-bed-at-noon e.Sussex, john-that-goes-to-bed-at-noon Wilt., shepherd’s clock York., Joseph’s flower, jack-by-the-edge e.Sussex (hedge)

Trichomanes speciosum

hare’s foot fern Kerry, maid(‘s)-hair Suff.,

Killarney Fern

Trichophorum cespitosum


ling Nhb., moss-crop w.York., deer’s hair, deer-hair n.Dmf., Nhb., drawling Ayr., Scot., Nhb., Tweeddale (misapplied to Eriophorum vaginatum; cf. Corn. dralyer “any trailing plant or weed; the explanation given by Pennecuik in Wright 2: 163 is unrealistic)

Trifolium arvense

Hare’s-foot Clover

trefoy, trefle Som. (French trèfle), three-leaved grass Corn., poverty-pink Berw., mother-of-corn Hert., hare’s foot clover w.Som., knap Dorset (knap = knob  app. 2.2), cob Nrf., Suff. scobs Cumb. (the seehead) app. 2.7.3

Trifolium campestre

croyd Scot., Ayr., Rnf., craid Scotland, hop-clover n.York., Berw., Glouc., Wilt., Devon

Hop Trefoil

Trifolium dubium ?

Lesser Trefoil ?

shamrock N.Irel., Antrim, Down, Fermanagh, West Meath, Dublin, Wicklow, Carlow, Wexford, Waterford, Limerick, Cork, Kerry; this name is generally attributed to a trefoil but the emblem of Ireland appears to be a Wood Sorrel leaf; the Gaelic name for clover is seamair; shamrock is the Gaelic seamróg, the ending óg meaning “young” may refer to the more tender and lighter green aspect of Oxalis as compared with the clover. Shamrock has also been applied to the Wood Sorrel and the Black Medick (Wright 5: 353), which shows that these three-leaved species can easily be confused. It may also be noted that “Some have supposed that wood-sorrel is the true shamrock” (Patrick, Plants, 1831: 288, cited by Wright), smere Cumb., Westm., smeer Cumb., smora Shetl., Ork. (Gaelic seamair “clover”), white nonsuch Suss., Hamp., wild trefoil Cumb.

Trifolium incarnatus

napoleon Suff., I.Wight

Crimson Trefoil

Trifolium medium

hop-clover Hamp., wild sookies Nhb., cow-clover n.York., cow-cloos Scot., curl-doddy, red curl-doddy Ork.

Zig-zag Clover

Trifolium pratense

Red Clover

cliver Cumb., York., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hert., Midl., e.Anglia, Kent, Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Dorset, Som., Devon., Corn., claver Scot., Irel., Nhb., Durham, Cumb., York., Derby, Glouc., clavver Durham, Cumb., w.York., clivver Aberdeen, cliven Devon, broad-clover I. Wight, broad-grass Dorset

bee-bread Kent, knap Dorset (knap = knob), honey-stalks War., lamb-suckling Cumb., honey-suck Nhp., War., Hamp., w.Som., honey-suckle York., Ches., Midl., Linc., Nhp. War., Oxf., Bdf., Hert., Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Som., Devon, clover-honeysuckle Glouc. suck-bottles Nhp., sucky-soo Scot., sucker Nhp., sucky Scot., Fife, Nhb., “from being sucked by children because of their sweetness”, sugar-plums Berw.

cow-grass Ches., n.Linc., Nhp., Nhb., n.Cy., Roxb., I.Wight, plyvens Scot., Aberd., Perth, Clyde, trefoy, trefle Som. (French trèfle), three-leaved grass Corn., marl-grass Som.

Trifolium repens

White Clover

white-sookies Nhb., white curl-doddy Ork., dutch dorset w.Som., honey-stalks War., lamb-suckling Cumb. (see T. pratense)

Trigonella caerulea

old-sow Wilt. (from its peculiar odour), sweet trefoil

Blue Trigonella

Triticum, cultivars


wheat England, wet Kent, wheeat n.York., wheeot s.Lanc., whet n.Cy., Kent, yeat Dorset, cone-wheat, cones Wor., Glouc., Berk., Bdf., berry Aberdeen, Surrey (the grain), corn York., Lanc., Linc., Westm., Shrop., w.Som. “wheat, in contradistinction to older grains”, dodder’d-wheat, doddred-wheat n.Cy., dodred-wheat n.Cy., York. “wheat without beards”, hummel-corn Scot., Berw., Rxb. (corn without awns), golden-drop Dorset (a variety; see Ribes uva-crispa), golden-grain Hert., hard-corn n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., haid-corn Nhb. “wheat and rye as opposed to barley and oats”, duck-wheat Kent, durgan, durgan-wheat Kent, hose Kirc., Frf., n.Cy., Midl., Hert., e.Anglia “sheath of corn, before it grows to seed”, bussock Westm., York., Lanc., Linc. (sheaf of corn), lammas-wheat Wor. (winter wheat), red-knot wheat Corn., red-lammas Rutland (varieties), hard wheat Som. (Triticum durum)

Trollius europaeus


golden-ball Lanc., Ches., golden-cup w.Som. golden-chain w.Som., may-blob Leic., globe-flower n.Som., king-cup w.Som., bull-jumpling n.York., butter-basket w.York., gollin, gowlan Cumb., gowan Nhb., locken-ma-gowan sw.Cumb., lockin-gowan Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., locken-gowlan Scot., lucken-gowlan Scot., Nhb., lockerty(-gowan) Cumb., Westm., lockety Westm., lockity Cumb., lockyer-goldens n.York. (locken = close-up, from the ball-shaped flower), cabby-daisy Scot., bachelor’s button Glouc., Corn.

Tropaeolum majus

monkey-hat Ches.


Tropaeolum peregrinum

canary, canary-plant n.Linc., canary-creeper Som., American creeper Devon

Canary Creeper

Tulipa (cultivars)



Tussilago farfara


tushalan, tussalagy, tushalagies Nhb., dishilago dishilagie Scot., Nhb., shellaggy sw.Scot., dishalagan Lanark, dishilagy Rxb., tushy-lucky gowan Scot., Dmf. (corruptions of Tussilago), hoof Westm., Glouc., horse-hoof Nhp., colt-fit N.Irel., Antrim, foal(‘s)-foot n.Cy., sow-foot n.York., bull-foot s.Berk., cow-leave Selk., cow-foot Shrop. (attributed to Senecio jacobae), dove-dock, dunny-leaf, dunny-leaf weed Hert., hog-weed n.York., mugwort Caith. (see Artemisia vulgaris), clote e. Angl., Nrf. (see Burdock), cherry-pie Lanc. (?)

Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia

Bulrush, and Lesser Bulrush

black-cap Cumb., black-head Ches., black-pudding I.Wight, blackamoor s Wilt. (dark brown inflorescence), black-boys Wilt. (for boyds), boulder, bolder, bowder e.Anglia, Nrf., bulrush Ches., Wilt., Devon, bulrusher Nhb. these two names attributed to “Caltha, Juncus, and Scirpus”, bulwand Scot., bull-seg Scot.,  app. 2.1; clubrush (-), sootipillies Gall., holy-pokers n.Devon, cat’s tail York, n.Linc., cat-o’nine-tails Linc., War., flaxtail Kent, goss Corn. (Welsh cors “marsh”, Breton cors “reed”), levers-daisy Devon (see Iris pseudacorus), dod n.Cy., Nhp., Devon, dother Rutl., Nhp. (= prob. Schoenoplectus lacuster) (Dutch dodde, Flemish dod reed or Typha app. 3.1; see Quaking-grass Briza media; white-heads Devon (?) the heads are dark brown, reed-mace (-) (also attributed to the Plantain; probably a name for the pungent Water Pepper)

Ulex europaeus


furze Linc., Nhp., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., e.Anglia, Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., furse Glouc., Hamp., s.Devon, fuzz, fuz Glouc., e.Anglia, Nrf., I.Wight, Som., s.Devon, Corn., vuzz, vuz I.Wight., Dorset, w.Som., nw.Devon., Corn., furzen War., Glouc., Wilt., fuzzen Nhp., Wor., Berk., Hert., Som., vurzen Dorset, vuzzen Wilt., Dorset, Som., fur, furr, furra Nrf., fir Not., sw.Linc., french-furze Devon, Corn.  app. 2.13

gorse Irel., Westm., Ches., Not., Leic., Nhp., War., Shrop., Bdf., Wilt., goss Wxf., s.Not., Nhp., Leic., Wilt., gorst Ches., Midl., Hrf., Shrop., gost Hrf.  app. 2.14

whin Engl, Scot., Irel., whun Scot., fun Caith., Banff, Aberd., whinn w.York., whinnie n.York., win n.York., w.York., Derby, whim Irel., quhin n.Lanc., Nhb., Cumb., Irel., whin-bloom Frf., Nhb., Cumb., Scot.; whinny-bush Lothian (Norwegian hvin) cf. Greek kentéō to prick), whinny-kow Peebles (furze bush)

ruffet Dorset, wyddeer Wxf., hath(-bush), hoth Sussex (heath-), honey-bottle Wilt., ling-berry n.Cy., nw.Devon (?),

Ulex minor

bed-furze Hamp., cornish-furze Corn., cat-whin Cumb.

Dwarf Gorse

Ulmus glabra

Wych Elm

quicken War., wych-elm, witch-tree w.Som., witch Som., Devon, witch-hazel Scot., York. Ches., Wor., Essex, Wilt., Som., Devon, witches’hazel Scot., witch-hazzle Ches., wych-hazle Wor., witch-halse w.Som., Devon, wichwood Cumb., elm-wych, wych-elm Nhb., switch-elm e.York. (see Sorbus aucuparia), holm Cumb., York., ome Cumb., own n.York., horn-beech Surrey, drunken e.Linc.

Ulmus procera

English Elm

may Devon, w.Corn., horse-may Corn. (with the coarse kind of leaves), elven War., se.Wor., Kent, Suss., elvin Kent, emmal Cumb., holm Cumb., York., ome Cumb., own n.York., Wiltshire-weed Wilt.

Urtica dioica

Stinging Nettle

nittle Banff., sting-nettle Londonderry, Devon (attributed to Galeopsis tetrahit and Lamium), w.Som., Dorset, tanging-nettle e.York. (tang = sting), naughty-man’s plaything Sussex, heg-beg Scot.,Gall., jenny-nettle I.Man

Vaccinium myrtillus


blaeberry Scot., Bnff., Frf., Lanark, Lothian, Irel, Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Shrop., bleaberry n.Cy., Nhb., cumb., n.York., e.York., n.Lanc., blayberry n.Cy., n.York., w.Work., bleeberry Nhb., bleeaberry Westm., n.York., blaaberry. blooberry w.York. (Norw. dial. blaabœr, Dan. blåbær), blaese Forfar (short for “blaeberries”), bilberry York., Ches., Derby., Linc., Leic., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., bilber York. (Dan. bølle-bœr)

hurts Caith., Camarthen, Pemb., Glouc., Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., Som., Devon, Corn., hurtleberry Som., Devon, herts Sussex, Hamp., Corn., hirts Devon, whirt Som., whurt Dev., Corn., wort Suss., w.Som., Dev., blackwort War., horts s.Pemb., Devon, whort Surr., Suss., Hamp., Som., Devon, Corn., England, whortleberry Berk., hart-berries Dorset, black-heart Hamp., ort Corn., horts s.Pemb., Devon “but now, alas! the Board schools are corrupting the old name into “worts” (Wright 3: 291, sub hurts). The name is cognate to hurtle “to crowd together in confusion” (n.Cy., Nhp), in reference to the plants being usually crowded together on large surfaces, cf. the following name: huddleberry Sussex (grows densely) heart Hamp.

whinberry n.Cy., Lanc., winberry n.Cy., Lanc., Ches., Shrop., windberry n.Cy., wimberry n.Cy., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., whimberry Shrop., Hrf., wimbry s.Lanc., fen-berry n.Cy., Staff., myrtle-berries Cumb. from the scient. name, black-berry n.York., crow-berry Moray (see Empetrum nigrum), feaberry Shrop. ? (see Ribes grossularia)

Vaccinium oxycoccus


crone Cumb., Westm., Lanc., crone-berry Cumb. Westm., ne.Lanc., croan-berry Westm., York., cramberries Ches., crawnberries Cumb., crane, crane-berry Scot., Nhb., Cumb., York., crannaberries Shrop., cranberry-wine Cumb., bog-berry Irel., moss-berry Cumb., mos-mingin Clyde, mea-berry, mea-wort w.York., whortleberry Berk. (see Vaccinium myrtillus), frankens Irel.

Vaccinium vitis-idaea


cluster-berries Derby, cranberry Banff., Aberdeen, Kirc., Elgin (see Vaccinium oxycoccum), crow-berry York., cow-berry Nhb., Cumb., w.York., moonog Irel., Scot. (see Empetrum nigrum), ling-berry York., Cumb. (also for Empetrum nigrum), wineberries (-), wyeberries n.Cy., Scot. (for “whinberries”, see Vaccinium myrtillus), flowering-box Ches. (?)

Valeriana celtica

bouncing-bess, delicate bess Devon

Celtic Valerian

Valeriana dioica

gooseberry-pie Devon

Marsh Valerian

Valeriana officinalis

Common Valerian

cat’s love w.York., Wilt., cat’s meat War., cat-trail York., cat-whin m.York., set-wall m.York., filaere, filayra Lanc., Ches., e.Cy., fillaira, villera N.Irel., valara Cumb., cut-finger-leaf Wilt., cut-leaf s.Buck., Hamp., cherry-pie Wilt., drunken-slots s.Devon, zayhaddick n.Dev., tommy twa-sorts Westm., York., shop-valerian Lanark (transl. of scient. name)

Valerianella locusta

lamb’s lettuce Scot., Banff

Corn Salad

Verbascum myconi

cow-flop Devon

Borage-leaved Mullein

Verbascum nigrum

snake’s head Dorset, snake-flower Wilt.

Dark Mullein

Verbascum thapsus

Great mullein

kirnstaff Gall., churn-staff Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., devil’s kirnstaff Ayr., Lanark, devil’s churnstaff N.Irel., Antrim, Shrop. (attributed to Euphorbia), shepherd’s staff Cumb., shepherd’s club Scot., shepherd’s gourd sw.Scot. (French gourdin “stick, club”), yellow-rod Ches. (attributed to Linaria vulgaris), aaron’s rod Scot., Linc., Glouc., middle counties, beggar’s stalk Cumb., golden-rod Devon, golden-grain Devon, jacob’s staff Cumb., Virgin-Mary’s candle Limerick.

fluff-weed Nrf., blanket-leaf Devon, War., blanket-bullein Ches., velvet-dock Devon, our Lord’s flannel, our Saviour’s flannel Kent (attributed to Echium vulgare), poor man’s flannel Buck., old-man’s flannel Som., adam’s flannel York., Ches., Linc., Nhp., War., from its whitish woolly leaves, cuddy’s lugs Nhb., hag-leaf, hag-taper, hag-paper Buck., hag’s taper Devon, wild ice-leaf Buck.

mullein-dock Nrf. (French molène), clote Wilt. (see Bur-dock), gert-burr (?), sea-cabbage Glamorgan (? = prob. Crithmum maritimum)

Verbena officinalis

berbine Kent (French verveine)


Veronica agrestis

winter-weed Shrop., garden speedwell n.York.

Green Field Speedwell

Veronica beccabunga


water-purple, water-purpie Scot., Cumb., brook-lime Ches., York., Derby, Suff., Hamp., Devon (also attributed to Nasturtium officinale and Apium nodiflorum) (OE hleomoce), becky leaves Devon (beck = stream), horse-cress e.York., horse-well grass Scot., cow-cress Essex, limpwort Hrf., pig’s grease Dorset, poor man’s tea Cumb., w.Ches., Nhp., War., Hamp., Huntingdon

Veronica chamaedrys

Germander Speedwell

bird’s eye Oxf., Berw., Wilt. wspr., billy-bright-eye Irel., bobbies-eyes Hamp., devil’s eyes War., god’s eye n.Linc., Devon, eyebright Antrim, Down, Shrop., w.Som., ne.York, Midl., blind-flower Durham, will-o’the-wisp Som., wish-me-well Ches., speedwell York., strike-fire Nhb., remember-me n.York., love-me-not s.Buck., lady’s thinble Lanc., germander Irel.

Veronica hederifolia

Ivy-leaved Speedwell

winter-weed n.York., Shrop., Bnff., Nrf., bird’s eye Essex, botherun, dotherum Ches. (see Chrysanthemum segetum)

Veronica officinalis

Heath Speedwell

fluellen Wales: Welch (from Welsh llysian Llywelyn lit. Llewelyn’s herb), shop-speedwell Lanark (transl. of scient. name)

Viburnum lantana

Wayfaring Tree

white-wood Hamp., Dorset, Wilt., white-weed Wilt. (?), whitten Kent, whitney Devon, whitten-beam Midl, s&w.Cy., whitten-tree Berk., Midl., s&w.Cy., whitty-tree Wilt., whip-crop I.Wight (see Viburnum opulus), cotton-tree Essex, Lanc., cottoner Kent (from its cottony leaves), cobin-tree Dur., coven-tree Dur., Buck., dog-timber Devon, dog-berry tree Linc., I.Wight

Viburnum opulus


wayfaring-tree Antrim (it grows commonly along roads), traveller’s joy Tyrone, water-elder Banff, Nhp., Berk., stink-tree I.Wight, dog-berry Ches., dog-eller Lanc., Ches., dog-tree w.York., dog-wood Lanc. gatter-bush e.Anglia, gatteridge(-tree) e.Anglia., Suff. (see Rubus fruticosus), scaw-dower Corn. (see Sambucus nigra)

Viburnum opulus, cultivar

Snow Ball

pincushion-shrub s.Buck., wild pincushion War., pincushion(-tree) War., Glouc., Hrf., Oxf., n.Buck., queen’s pincushion Nhp., lady’s pincushion War., whitsun-bobs s.Wor., whitsun-boss Rutland, War., Wor., Glouc., whitsuntide-boss Glo., white eller Ches., white-ash w.Dorset, whip-crop I.Wight (for whit-), golden-ball w.Som. (a cultivated variety), may-tosty Devon, may-ball Suffolk, snao-ball(-tree) York., Lanc., Ches., Not., Linc., Nhp., War., Shrop., Oxf., Wilt., Som., Devon, king’s crown Glouc., love-roses Hert., guelder-rose (-), silver-bells Wilt., mugwet w.Cy., parnell Shrop.

Viburnum tinus

may Devon


Vicia, collective names

vetches, collective names

fetches Shrop., Suff., fitch Irel., Scot., England, wild fitch Cumb., fatch Wor., Hrf., Glouc., w.Cy., thetch War., Wor., Oxf., Buck., Bdf., Hert., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon (dialectal forms of vetch – Wright)  app. 3.7

tare s.Scot., n.Cy., e.York., Ches., s.Not., Linc., Midl., Suff., Essex, Wilt. (here attributed to Convolvulus arvensis), tore Shrop., tare-vetch s.Cy., I.Wight, Dorset, tare-fitch Ches., Shrop., w.Cy., tare-grass Staff., Kent, tradday Cumb.

time Hert., mouse’s peas Nhb., twin-grass Hert., cow-vetch Glouc., wild vetch Cumb., Oxf., wild thetch-grass Hert., wild tare (-), bindweed Hert., gore-thetch Hert. (a variety), bush-vetch, dill Ches., Wor., Glouc., Leic.  app. 3.5; dother Ches.  app. 3.4

Vicia orobus

horse-pease Cumb.

Wood Bitter-vetch

Vicia sativa

Common Vetch

lints York., Derby, Shrop., chichelings, cichlings n.Cy. (French pois chiche “chick pea”), cat-peas Nhb., twadgers York., spelt-corn Devon; black-corn n.York. (?), black-victual Scot. (?), the last two names attributed to “dark pulse, beans”

Vicia sepium

crow-pears Cumb.

Bush Vetch

Vicia sylvatica

culverkey Nhp.

Wood Vetch

Vinca minor, V. major


penny-winkle Nhb., York., Derby, War., Berk., Suff., Kent, Devon, pennyrinkle Devon, porriwinkle ne.Lanc., prinkle Devon, pennywilk Nhb., penny-wink Kent, easter-shell n.York.

Vinca major

Greater Periwinkle

blue-buttons Dorset, Devon, blue-bell Devon, cockle Glouc., cockle-shells Dorset, cut-finger Oxf., water stoup Edinb. (?) “from its resemblance to a pitcher” (this description does not correspond to the periwinkle)

Vinca minor

sengreen I.Wight,

Lesser Periwinkle

Viola canina

cuckoo’s shoes Shrop., cuckoo’s stocking Camarthen, shoe-and-stockings s Pembroke

Heath Dog-violet

Viola canina, V. sylvatica, V. tricolor

summer-violet War., horse-violet Essex, Devon


Viola lutea

yellow-violet Cumb., sheperd’s pansy Nhb.

Mountain Pansy

Viola palustris

water-violet n.York.

Marsh Violet

Viola reichenbachiana

hedge-violet Devon, pig-violet Ches., butter-pats Lanc., pig-nut Ches. (the seed capsule)

Early Dog-violet

Viola (cultivars)

Pansy (cultivated varieties)

kiss e.Anglia, kiss-me Linc., Sussex, kiss-me-quick Wilt, Devon, w.Som., kiss-and-look-up Som., jump-up-and-kiss-me Sussex, Hamp., look-up-and-kiss-me Corn., kitty-run-the-street, kitty-come-down-the-lane-jump-up-and-kiss-me Kent (this name attributed to the Cuckoo Pint), kiss-me-love, kiss-me-love-behind-the-garden-gate Devon, kiss-me-behind-the-garden-gate Lanark, War., Nrf., Suff., kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate Nrf., kiss-me-at-the-garden-gate Nhp., e.Suff., e.Anglia, kiss-me-john-at-the-garden-gate s.Buck., Wor., Cumb., n.Essex, Nrf., Suff., jack-bird-in-the-garden-gate Suff. (some of these names are sometimes applied to the wild Viola tricolor),

face-and-hood Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, three-faces-in-a-hood, three-faces-under-a-hood Lanc., York., Nhp., Shrop. (in some varieties three large petals look like a human face), trinity-violet York., monkey(‘s)-face, cat’s face Sussex, love-and-idle(s), love-and-idol(s) Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, wild love-and-idle Glouc., love-and-idlness War., nuffin-idols Glouc., Wilt., numman-idols Glouc. (corruptions of love-in-idleness – Wright), seven-years-in-idle Hamp., seven-years-in-idleness Lanark, Nhp., War., Glouc., Oxf., love-true Nhp., heart-pansy Devon, bleeding-heart Hamp., heart’s ease Corn., step-daughters York., godfathers Dur.

biddy’s eyes Som., pink-eyed-John Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Bdf., pinky-eyed-John sw.Linc., pinkeneyed-John Bdf., pinkeney-John, pinkenny-John Nhp., pinkney-John War., pink-o’-my-John Leic.

fire-light Wor., fine-leaf Linc. coach-horse w.Som., buttery-entry, kiss-her-i’ buttery, meet-her-i’ entry Derby, gentleman-tailor Dorset. (All these names have been attributed to Viola tricolor, but evidently they are those of the garden pansy)

Viscum album


misle Scot.: Perth, mislin-bush e.Anglia, masslinn Suff., missel Nhb., Shrop., miseltoe Shrop., mezel, mezeltoe Nhb., mistletoe Nhb., Linc., Shrop., all-heal Scot.

Weigelia rosea

apple-shrub w.Som. (from the likeness of its flowers to apple blossoms)

Pink Weigela

Zantedeschia aethiopica

may-flower Linc.

White Arum Lily

Zea mais

Indian corn


Zostera marina


grass-weed, grass-wrack I.Wight, sea-wrack, sea-wreck n.York., Antrim, sea-weed (-), sleech-grass N.Irel., sweet-grass Donegal (for sleech-), marlak Shetl., mallow Shetl., Ork. (Norw. dial. marlauk id. – Wright), droo Shetl., drew Ork.



cunie Devon, Corn., cuney, cuny, kuney w.Corn., kueney Corn. “any species of short growing moss” (Gaelic Ireland cúnach, caonach, Scot. còinneach “moss”)


Polytrichum commune

besom-moss, moss-besom Cumb., gowk-bear Ayr., laverock’s lint Scot., silkling n.York., silkwood Hamp.,



gold-heath Hamp., old-wives’ tow n.Irel.




Marchantia polymorpha

liver-grass Perth


Peltigera canina

land-lung, land-lin Suff.


FUNGI 1: Class: Homobasidiomycetes


Collective names: musheroon Irel., e.Suff., Kent, Surrey, Som., musherroon Irel., Glouc., mushroon, mashroon Kent, masheroon N.Irel., mesheroon, mesheroom Glouc., misheram w.York., mishroon Kent., Sussex., mishroom Hrf., musharoom Nrf., musharune Suff., mushelroom Devon, musherooin e.Suff., mushamer Cumb., musher Hamp. (French mousseron)

shampillion, champillion Nrf., Surrey, champilion Ches., champeron Berk: Abingdon, champeroom Oxf. (French champignon), hedge-mushroom Ches., horse-mushroom Cumb., York., Midl.

paddock Lanc., paddack Lakel. (also “frog”), priest’s pintel, priest’s pintle Cumb. (various fungi)

toad-stool Ches., Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Dorset, cock-stule n. York.

Undetermined species: britch York. (a hard fungus growth on ash trees), bruch Nhb. (toadstool), chessaroon Som.: Bristol (a poisonous fungus), stag Bdf. “a coarse mushroom”, frog’s meat Glouc., frog’s seat Nhp. (Agaricus), ginger-mushroom Not. (a poisonous Agaricus)

oak-leather Irel. (a fungus on oak)



frog-cheese Nhp. “a fungus growing on decayed wood” (this name is also given to a puffball)


Agaricus campestris

white-caps Essex (and other mushrooms) n.Wales

Field Mushroom

Lycoperdon bovista


snuff-box Hamp., Som., Devon, devil’s snuff Scot., n.Cy., w.Cumb., n.Lanc., Ches., w.Som., Dorset, Shrop., Sussex, I.Wight, Devon, Corn., devil-snuff-box War., satan’s snuff-box Sussex, old-woman’s snuff-box Oxf., dead-man’s sneechin Rxb.

fuzz-ball England, fooz-ball Not., Leic., fus-ba n.Cy., fus-ball Devon, fuss-ba Nhb., fuz-baw Cumb., w.York., Lanc., Ches., fuz-bo, fuzz-bo Westm., Cumb., n.Lanc., puzz-baw s.Ches. (fuzzy = soft, spongy)

bull-fiest, bull-feist e.Anglia, bull-fuss, bullfis, bulver Nrf., bullfyce, bullfer Suff., puckfeist n.Cy., Nhp., War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Suff., Wilt., Devon, puckfiest Suff. puckfist n.Cy, Glouc., Devon, e.Anglia, puckfyst se.Wor., pookfoist s.Wor., puckfice War., puckfoist Glouc., puckfoust Glouc., Wilt., puck’s foot (-), puckfris, puckfrist, pugfiest Wor., pugfist Nhp., Oxf., puck-fuss, bull-fyste, wolves-fyste (Cotgrave) [for fuss-, cf. French vesse (de loup)], puck’s stool Sussex, puck-ball (-)

puffer, puff-ball Glouc., mully-puff Hert., pixy-puff n.Cy., Devon., smut-ball Nhp.,

blind-ball, blind-buff Shrop., blind-man’s ball, blind-man’s bellows Scot., blind-men’s een ne.Scotland, bunt Nhp., cos-a-phooka Irel. (from Gaelic cos “foot” and púca “elf, sprite”),

Otidea cochleata

flap e.York., Ches., e.Anglia, Sussex

cup fungus

Peziza coccinea

jew’s ears Cumb., York., Suff., Hamp., Devon, Corn.

Scarlet Cup

Phallus impudicus


carrion-plant s.Irel. (from its foetid smell), stink-pot Cumb., devil’s stinkpot York., devil’s horn Nrf., hedge-horn I.Wight, stink-horn York., w.Som., Devon, black-cap Cumb.

Polyporus squamosus

punk Shrop. “a white fungus growing on decayed ash-trees”

Scaly Polyporous

Sarcoscypha coccinea

scarlet-cup Devon, whooping-cups, blood-cups Suss.

Scarlet Elfcup

FUNGI 2: Gelimycetes: Ustilaginales, Tremellales

Jelly fungi and related other fungi

Claviceps purpurea

spur Scot. rye spur, rye smut, ergot of rye


fis Nrf. “decay in fruit”


Nidularia campanulata

corn-bells Nhp., War., Wor., fairy-purses n.Linc.


Exidia glandulosa

witch’s butter, fairy-butter Nhp., n.Cy. (a yellow gelatinous fungus); see also Tremella and Nostoc

Black Witch’s Butter

Tilletia caries

Bunt Smut

smut English (a fungus of the order Ustilagines on cereals), bunt Linc., Nhp., Bedf., Huntingdon, bunty, bunted Linc. “smutted”

Marasmius oreades

fairy-ring Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., n.Linc., Nhp., War., Shrop., Oxf., Brks., Hunt., e.Anglia, Suff., Sussex, I.Wight, fairy-green Scot. (the rings of greener grass caused by this fungus), scotch-bonnet Devon

Fairy Ring

Tremella albida, T. albida, T. arborea, T. mesenterica

Jelly Tremella

fairy-butter n.Cy., Nhb., York., Nhp., Hamp., e.Anglia, star-jelly Nhp. (a yellowish, gelatinous fungus, the appearance of which is not unlike butter), shotstar Scot., Gall., Londonderry, shotstern Selk., fallen-stars Scot., Note: Tremella is a fungus, Nostoc is an alga; both are found in jelly form and are not distinguished. See Nostoc

Ustilago segetum

blast Suff. (= blight), brawn w Cy., parson-corn n.Linc. (corn affected by the smut)

Smut fungus


Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta



seaweed, collective names

wrack Scot., Irel., Shetl., Ork., Nhb., York., Lanc., I.Man, Ches., Not., Linc. e.Anglia; wreck Scot.; wrack is also any kind of rubbish cast up by the sea = wreck; wassels, wassal Nhb. (wassle = to beat; sea-weeds are beaten by the waves)  app. 3.8; bush N.Irel. (masses of seaweed growing on sunken rocks, and exposed at low water); ood Kent, furbelows Devon

Alaria esculenta

Wing Kelp, Hart’s-tongue

hen-ware Scot., honey-ware Scot., Shetl., Ork., hinnie-waar Scot., minkles Shetl., Ork., murlin(s) Irel.: Antrim, badderlocks Scotland, Aberdeen, Irel., dabberlocks, bobbins Scot. (to bob = to pop up and down)

Ascophyllum nodosum

feamhainn bhuid Gaelic Scot., rock weed (-)

Knobbed Wrack

Callithamnion floridulum

fig w.Irel. (great quantities are washed on shore and collected as manure)


Chondrus crispus


carrageen (moss), carragheen-moss Irel.: Clare: Kilkee, karrikin from cairgean Gaelic Scot., killeen Irel., Irish moss Ches. (imported from Ireland), oak-lungs London (it is sold in the market under this name), pig’s wrack n.Irel., pear-moss (-)

Chorda filum

rrog N.Irel., drew Scot., cat-gut Shetl., Ork., sea-laces

Sea Laces

Codium fragile

green sea-fingers (-)

Race Rocks

Corallina officinalis (not Millepora polymorpha, as in Wright, a coral)

crantze, krancy Shetl.

Common Coralline

Enteromorpha intestinalis

sea-guts Devon

Green Nori

Fucus ciliatus

craw-dulse Scot.

Fringed Fucus

Fucus palmatus

red-ware Scot., red-waar Shetl., Ork., Caith., red-wir Shetl., sea-girdles Ork.


Fucus nodosus

knop-tangle Shetl., Ork., yellow-tang Scot., ware-wassel Nhb., bottle-ore Scilly I.

Yellow tang

Fucus pennatifidus

pepper-dulse Scot.

Jagged Fucus

Fucus pixidatus

box, boxie-vrack Scot., Down


Fucus serratus

crabby-ore Scilly I., black wrack

Serrated Wrack

Fucus vesiculosus

Bladder Wrack

bladder-wrack Irel., I.Man, black tang Scotland, bell-ware w.Scot., bell-weed Caith., sea-bottle Som., cracker Cumb., cracker-heads Angus (air vessels), lig, liggen Corn., kelp-ware w.Scot., sea-weed, sea-ware Ork., sea-waur Frf., sea-oak, lady wrack, popping wrack (-)


kelp (-), ME cülp(te)  app. 3.4


Laminaria digitata

Sea Tangle

ware Scot., Caith., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Pemb., e&s.Cy, Kent, Hamp., wair Scot., wear, weer, woar Nhb., waar Banff., n.Cy., Nhb., warr Shetl., Ork., waur n.Cy., Kent, weir n.Cy., Nhb., woor s.Cy., Kent, wor Pemb., Kent, ore Glamorgan, e&s.Cy., Susssex, Hamp., I.Wight, Devon, Corn., Kent: Thanet I., oar Glamorgan, Devon, oare Kent, oore e&s.Cy., ore-weed, ore-wood Devon, Corn., ore-mongel Corn.: Looe, ware-weed, ware-wood s.Pemb. (in dialects weed and wood are used interchangeably – Wright).

tang Scot., n.Cy., Shetl., Ork., Nhb., York., Lanc., tangle Scot., sea-tang, sea-tangle Gall., n.York., Lanc., cairn-tangle, carn-tangle, tangle, carl-tangle Scot. (grows on beds of stones), burroe Irel., stamh, slat-mhara, doire Gaelic Scot.

daberlick Scot., daberlack Nairn “long seaweed” (also “wet strap of cloths”, lank hair locks”, from dabby “limp, flabby”), may-top, may-weed Nhb. (sheds its upperparts about the end of May – in Wright), lagh Irel: Antrim, Down, fyams N.Irel., currack, roup Banff

Laminaria saccharina

skertar, skerter Ork. (ON sker “rock” and Þari “seaweed), sea-belt (-)

Broadleaf Kelp, Sugar Wrack

Macrocystis (?pyrifera )

Giant Kelp

Porphyra laciniata

Slake Kale

sloke Dublin, slaike n.Scot., slaak ne.Lanc., sloak Dublin, N.Irel. See Ulva, and Conferva; laver Glamorgan, Som., Devon

Rhodymenia palmata


dulse (Gaelic Scot. duileasg), dill Shetl., dulse  app. 3.5; shell-dillisk Irel. “because it is frequently covered with young mussel-shells

Ulva lactuca


laver Glamorgan, Som., Devon, naval laver Scot., sea-lettuce sea-moss (-), black-butter Devon, green-sloke Scot., glasag Gaelic Scot.; mooi Shetl. “a green seaweed eaten by cattle”

Ulva lactuca, Ulva umbilicalis, Ulva latissima

Porphyra laciniata, Porphyra umbilicalis

(collective names)

sloke Irel., Scot., Nhb., York., Lanc., Clare, Nhb., Forf. “for the most part confined to the marine edible species, but also extended to the fresh water ones”, sloak N.Irel., n&m.York., slouk, sloukawn Irel., Scot., slouke, sluke, slukane Nhb., Clare (see Fresh Water Alga: Conferva)




fresh water alga

“Conferva” is used in a wide sense. Yellow-green alga (Xanthophyceae) that forms scum in fresh water, often floating on the surface when decaying. Comprises the genera Vaucheria, Tribonema, identifiable only by specialists.

droke Kent (see Lolium temulentum), duck-mud Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, gender e.York. (also “frog-spawn”; also attributed to Lemna), lambskin Irel., n.Cy., I.Wight, n.Linc., Nrf., lamb’s tail Nrf.; mere-ball, moss-ball Shrop. (mere = mire; moss = moor), padda-red Nhb. (green slime formed on stagnant pools; padda = frog, padd-rud or red = frog spawn), sloum Rxf. “the green scum that gathers on stagnant water”, also “the slow an silent motion of the water of a deep pool, slumber”, slake Scot., Nhb., Caith., Aberd. (also “anything soft, semi-liquid, unctuous, or muddy that smears”, sloke n.Scot., York., “the green scum that rises to the surface of stagnant water” see Wright 5: 497 sub slake, and 5: 532 sub sloke) (Gaelic slócan), crow-silk Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, crake-silk w.Cumb., lady’s soap Nhb., crow-gall nw.Derby, beggary e.Anglia


Nostoc, a green alga

loch-lubbertie Scot., star-slubber w.York., star-jelly Nhp., star-shot Nhb., Linc., Nhp., ne.Lanc., star-slutch Ches., starn-fall Caith., Shetl., star-falling Nhb., fallen-stars Scot. (see Tremella, a fungus)



Lecanora tartarea

lichen Cudbear

corkie n.Scot., Shetl., Ork., corkir, korkir Scot., corkie-lit Scot., korkalit Shetl., corcolet, corklit Gall. (the dye made from this lichen; to lit = to dye indigo blue), stone-bark Rxb., stone-rag Nhb., staniraw w.Dur., stone-ra Scot., Shetl., Ork. (ragged appearance), cutbeard Nhb., cudbear

Parmelia omphalodes

lichen Cud-bear

crotal, crottle Ireland, Scot.: Highlands, crotel, stone-crottles N.Irel., hazel-crottles n.Irel. (crottle = crumb, small fragment; hazel is a kind of sandstone), crottlie Scot. “covered with crottle”, crotel Irel. (Gaelic crotal), cud-bear Scot., arcell Cumb. (a lichen growing on rocks, used as a dye)

dog-nashicks n.Scot. (gall on Salix repens)


Cynips quercusfolii


oak-ball s.Ches., oak-marble Devon (oak gall), galiot ne.Lanc., oak-apple

Diplolepis rosae

pincushion s.Not., robin-redbreast Ches. (rose-gall) (the gall), briar-ball Nhp., briar-bob Ches., canker-ball, canker-rose w.Som., cock-rose n. Linc. (spongy excrescence growing on wild rose-bush), gall, gall-flower Scot., the mossy excrescence that grows on rose bushes; formerly used in medicine under the name of bedeguar, gipsy-rose n.Linc. (the gall), hip-boss Shrop. (for moss?)

black-grass Nrf. (attributed to several grasses)

bumble York., Linc. (attributed to Schoenoplectus lacustris and Typha; see Rubus fruticosus) hedgehog Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Wilt. (prickly seeds)

hell-weed n.Buck, York., indian-grass, “C. trifolii”

may-hay Scot.

muzzle-weed Nrf.

red-vine Hrf. “a variety of hop” (prob. another climber)

sea-fike Lothian “A marine plant which, when rubbed on the skin, causes great uneasiness. It seems to have received this name because it fikes, or causes disquietude of the skin”

Wright, vol. 5:

stchiven N.Irel. a sea-wrack

ogadoo Shetl. a weed which grows among corn (Middle Dan. agerdun) *tomentum.

scroyle Pembroke, a bramble.

codlin(g)s Lanark sp.

cat’s eye Ches. ” variety of codlin apple”

baccobolts I. Wight (ressembles a roll of tobacco)


herb Irel., Scot., England, arb I.Man, w.Som., Devon, arib Irel., arby nw.Devon., Corn., herby, harby Corn., yarb w.York., Lanc., Ches., s.Staff., Derby, War., se.Wor., Shrop., w.Som., Devon, yarby w.Wor., Corn., yearb, yebb Cumb., yerb Cumb., n.York. sw.Linc., yirb Scot. (French herbe, Spanish yerba)

filsch n.Scot., filch Caith. “any kind of weed or grass covering the ground, especially when under crop”


truss Nhp. a bunch of flowers growing on one stalk, such as cowslips etc. Germ. strauss

Plant life: flower


Carrot family

kecks, keks, kex, keaks, keeks, kerk, kesk, kexes, kexy, keyx, kikcks, kik, kistey, kisks, kix, kixes, kiks widespread in England, kecks, kex, kix s.Cy., Hmp. I.Wight (attr. to Prunus spinosa), gicks, gix Glouc., Wilt., gicksies Wilt., keggas, kegge, kayer, kai-yer Corn., keglus Ches., kesk Cumb., kesh n.Cy., Lakel., Yorks., Lanc., Cumb., keish Lanc., caise York.: Brighouse, casshes Cumb., kewse York., Lanc., Linc., keyse w.York., e.Lanc. (plur. kewsies Linc.), kewsies (plur.) Linc., kewse York., Lanc., Linc., keawse e.Lanc., keyse w.York., e.Lanc., koush Lanc., Linc., keeshion n.Irel. (any hollow stalked umbelliferous plant: Heracleum sphondylium, Anthriscus sylvestris, Daucus carota, Conium maculatum). These names appear to mean “something hollow”, cf. kecks, kexes “trousers”, kecks-head Dorset (the inflorescence), app. 2.3; kecks-stalk Nhp. (the stalk of an umbelliferous plant), kilk Kent, Surrey, Sussex, kelk-kecksy n.York.

kedlock Lanc., Ches., cadlock, kelk n.Cy., Nhb., Durham, York., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Wilt.

bullers Som., Devon, biller Devon, bilder(s) Som., I. Wight, Devon., Som., Corn., Irel., beller, belder, bylder e.Anglia (the umbrella-shaped inflorescences of Umbelliferae) these names have also been applied to various species of the carrot family >app. 2.1


Various dial. forms: gaers, garse, gers(e), gerss, gess, girs(e), gorse, grace, grase, gress, gurs(e), gurze, gus, grass app. 2.14; feg(grass) n.Cy., Westm., York., Ches., Midl., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Radnor, fegg n.Cy., pheg Shrop. (long coarse grass), risp(-grass) Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., resp, rispie Scot. “long coarse grass”; wimble-bent Shrop. (a light, long kind of grass); widdal Ches. “a blade of grass”

long coarse grass or rushes, seed-stalks of grass

bent Scot. Irel, n.and midl. counties, e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Hmp. I.Wight, Wilt., Som., bennet Nhp. War., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hmp., Wilt., Dorset, Som., bennut Oxf., benett Som., bonnet w.Som., bonnet-strings w.Som.;

Grasses (tufts)

buff Nhb., Wor., Kent, buff-fronts Nhb., n.Cy., buff-faces Nhb., bull-faces Nhb., Cumb., n&ne.York., Ches. (see Deschampsia cespitosa), bussock s.Linc. (large tuft of coarse grass); cleavers e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. (tufts of coarse grass or rushes turned up by the plough on recent grass land). See Galium aparine

red-shoal Linc. “patch of weeds growing in shallow water around pools”

grass or sedge


seg, segg Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., Staff., Derby, Linc. Leic. Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., Buck., e.Anglia, sedge Scot., Ches., e.Anglia, Hmp., Dorset, Corn., serge Ches., seag Gall., Cumb., sag Scot., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Glouc., e.Anglia., Som., sagg Leic., sagge Frf., saeg, saig Gall., zeg, zag Glouc., seggen Scot., Rnf., Cumb., York., Irel., Antrim, seggon Antrim,  seggan Scot., Ayr., seggin Cumb; sedge has sometimes been applied to other marsh plants such as Iris pseudacorus, Sparganium ramosum, Typha latifolia… (Low Germ. segg, Germ. segge, Welsh hesg, akin to Germ. säge “saw” and to Latin secare, on account of the sharp leaf edges; cf. its other name “shear-grass”); seave York. (1483) “juncus, carex”; in combinations: -seave York., Cumb., n.Cy., Ork., -seves, -sives n.York. (ON sef “sedge”, Dan. siv)


rush (French rouche, roseau “reed”, Dutch, Germ. rusch, AS risce) app.2.13

Ferns, fern-brake

bracken Engl., Scot., Irel., breckan Nhp., brecken Nhp., n.York., breken m. York. breckin Durham, breckon n.York., brake England, Scot., n.Cy., Ches., Not., Nhp., e.Anglia, Kent, Sussex, Hmp., Devon, break Scot., brank Suff, brinke Dodrset, fern-brake Hmp., brake-fern England. These terms also mean a cops or a strip of land covered with gorse, furze etc., brake English (thicket, brushwood; MLG brake branch, stump, and eventually French branche, and English branch), durracks s.Pemb. “A thicket, a place overgrown with furze, bramble, and thorns, with a brook running through”

groundling e.Suff.



bramble England, Scot., Irel., bramley Westm. brumley Cumb., York., bramml e.York. bremble Dorset, bremel Nhb., brummel York., Hmp., brimble Ches., Shrop., Surrey, Dorset, Corn., brimel Wexford, brimmel Nhb., brimmle Westm. w.Som., broomle Cumb., brumble e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. (Dutch braam, MHG brāme); brawse Lanc. (i.e. brush)


hadder, hedde Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., n.Cy., Nhb., e.Anglia (Swedish hed, Dan. hede, Germ., Dutch heide; heddery “rough, shaggy”, epithet that characterizes heath); horse-break Kent “a kind of whin”; horse-prickle Kent “dwarf variety of gorse growing in poor pastures”; cat-heather Aberdeen (a kind of heath)


wood Scot., Engl., Irel, ‘ood se.Wor., Oxf., w.Som., nw.Devon, wod, wud(e) Scot. with Westm., York “a wood”, from ON viđr “a wood, forest”)

wort < Germ. wurz


hard-wood Kirc., Sterl., n.Linc., w.Som. “oak and ash as distinguished from fir, willow, birch etc.”

holt “wood, grove” (Dutch holt)

wood, grove


brass Corn., brash I. Wight, n. and midl. counties, Irel., brishe I. Wight (small branches, twigs, underwood), brush  app. 2.13

frith n.Cy., York., Glouc., Wor., Sussex, I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, Som. (brushwood suitable for hedges such as Crataegus laevigata, Prunus spinosa)


shrub (OE scrybb, Danish skrub, Norwegian skrubba), shrog Lakel., York., Sussex, scrog “thorn bush, underwood”